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J. C. VAN MARKEN 



NDUSTRIAL SOCIAL 



ORGANISATION 




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J. C V AN M ARK EN ■g * 
INDU STRIAL SOCIAL 
ORGANISATION * x 





TRANSLATED BY S. DE JASTRZEBSKI. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/industrialsociaOOvanm 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. Page . 

THE INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES OF HOF VAN DELFT v 

SOCIAL ORGANISATION OF THE NETHERLANDS 
YEAST AND SPIRIT FACTORY. 

THE MOTHER IDEA. 

SCHEME OF THE ORGANISATION. 

WORK AND WAGES i 

MATERIAL INTERESTS n 

INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT 29 

SPIRIT OF COMRADESHIP AND COMMUNITY 43 

SOCIAL UNDERSTANDING AND AGREEMENT 57 

FESTAL PROCESSION OF A DUTCH INDUSTRY AT 
DELFT AND HOF VAN DELFT, ON THE EVE 
OF THE 20 th CENTURY. 

PROGRAMME OF THE PROCESSION ON THE OCCASION OF THE 
2 5 th ANNIVERSARY OF THE NETHERLANDS YEAST AND 
SPIRIT FACTORY 71 

SUPPLEMENTS. 

STATISTICAL DIAGRAMS. 

NETHERLANDS YEAST AND SPIRIT FACTORY. 

VAN MARKEN PRESS. 
WORKMEN'S DWELLINGS IN AGNETA PARK. 

PLANS, PRICES, RENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 
The Industrial Companies of Hof van Delft. 



The social organisation of which a systematic sketch is given in 
this brochure, is applied in all its entirety to the Delft factory of the 
Netherlands Yeast and- Spirit Company L i m i t e d — (subscribed 
capital in 1870, 150.000 florins = £ 12.500; subsequently increased till 
1900 to 1.350.000 florins = £ 112.500). The same Company has, outside 
Delft, factories at Rotterdam (spirit refinery) at Schiedam (mattings) and at 
Bruges in Belgium (spirit and yeast). 

This organisation is the work of 30 years of uninterrupted care for the 
employed of every rank and of every class. Begun at the inception of the 
Company (1870), it has been developed and completed in proportion as the 
wants and circumstances have manifested themselves. 

Directors: Mr. Van Marken, with — from 1885 — Mr. Waller, his nephew, 
as co-director. 

Of more recent date are : 

1 st . The Netherlands Oil Company Limited, a neighbour of 
the Yeast Manufactory, founded in 1883 with a capital of 400,000 florins 
{£ 33.333), doubled a few years later. [n 1897 this Company united with 
the old-established house of E. Calve & C°. of Bordeaux, under the title 
of The Netherlands Franco-Dutch Oil Works Limited: New 
Works Calve-Delft, with a capital of 1.800.000 florins = £ 150.000. 

Directors: Messrs. Van Marken, Chairman; E. Calve, G. Calvk (Bordeaux), 
Dr. J. R. Tutein Nolthenius, H. Tutein Nolthenius (Delft) and Gr. Thube 
( Nantes). 

The effects of this Company consist of: 

a. The factory at Delft; 

b. The factory at Laubardemont near Coutraz (Grironde) ; 

c. The development of the domain (1000 H.A. = 2500 acres) of 
Salnieh in Egypt (cultivation of earth nuts). 

The Delft factory has been united since its foundation with the social 
organisation of its neighbour, the Yeast factory. 



VI INTRODUCTION. 

Its wage system has the same bases. 

Profit sharing (10 IJ /o) ' s a ' s,) secured in its articles of association. It has 
its "Kernel" composed in the same way. Its employees have precisely the 
same rights both in regard to moral and material support as also in the clubs 
and gatherings. As far as is possible the institutions are even combined. Others 
have necessarily an independaut administration according to their particular 
needs, as the distribution of the share of profits, which varies in the different 
Companies, the widows' funds, etc. 

2 nd . The Glue and (I el a tine factory is the third and youngest 
of the Delft Companies properly so-sailed. Founded by the same group, but 
confided to the management of a too young and inexperienced man, it had a 
chequered and difficult beginning. In 1891, when the Company was in a very 
precarious position, my nephew and colleague in the directorate of the Yeast 
Factory and myself took the management in hand, having secured the co- 
operation of Dr. Van Stolk. We have had the satisfaction of putting the 
undertaking on a sound footing: we succeeded in re-constructihg the entire 
share capital (of 200.000 florins = £ 16.666), and at the present moment it 
is actually the most prosperous of the three Companies just quoted. The 
social organisation, which remained in suspense during the period of adversity, 
is now being developed in the same spirit, in adhering as closely as possible 
to those of the Distillery and Oil Works. 

To end this enumeration of the Industrial Companies of 11 of 
van Delft, of which 1 have the honour to be co-director, it is necessary 
to say a special word on the subject of that social experiment which 
bears the name of the 

VAN MARKEiV PRESS. 

The Van Mar ken Press is in extent, capital and number of workmen 
the least important, and yet I hold it dearest at heart. Founded exclusively 
with my own capital, I have been able in this case to apply most radically 
my own ideas without having to account to anyone, as is the case in those 
great Companies with a share capital of thousands of pounds; in which 
however I have had every reason to be fully satislied with the way in which 
the numerous shareholders have allowed me to act, and in which they have 
accepted without murmuring and generally -as far as their vote was neces- 
sary with unanimity the sacrifices which I imposed upon or asked of them 
for the institutions founded and connected therewith. Sacrifices, which however 
were not so in reality according to my way of thinking, for I am firmly 
convinced that whatever the master can do for the moral and material well- 
being of his workmen, is amply repaid to him. 



INTRODUCTION. VII 

The articles of association of the Van Marken Press open with the 
following declaration of the principles of the founders ('): 

That they consider labour in the Van Marken Press Limited as a co-under- 
taker, who has the right to co-discussion and co-decision of the interests of the 
Company according to the statutes of the present act; 

That the influence of capital — that is to say of the amounts subscribed 
by the shareholders — upon the results of the undertaking is limited bg its 
amount, ivliilst the influence of intellectual and physical labour is unlimited 
in proportion to the will and zeal of the workman ; 

That consequently, the shareholders cannot justly claim more than a limited, 
share of the profits — greater in proportion as the profits are more uncertain 
and the risks greater — as opposed to the unlimited just claim of labour ; 

That it is desirable to gradually transfer to labour the co-proprietorship 
and finally the sole proprietorship of the means of production, that is to say 
the shares in the Company, which eni the undersigned propose to attain bg 
means of saving the profits allotted to labour, against repayment to the 
shareholders of the amounts subscribed. 

In accordance with these principles, the first article of the Statutes 
stipulates : 

That the Company is an association of capital and labour, which under- 
takes the execution of all work connected with the printing industry, with 
the intention: 

1 st . Of paging in the first place to the associate-workpeople a scdarg, fixed 
for the adult at a minimum which, in the judgment of the associates, appears 
necessarg to supply the modest but reasonable needs, according to the local 
circumstances of the time, of a workman's family of normal size. 

To reserve in addition to the associate-workpeople all the profits of the 
Company, after the services of capital have been rewarded as follows : 

2 nd . Of assuring to the capital of the Company a modest interest and at 
the same time an equitable return for the risks to which the founders' capitcd 
is exposed in the founding of a new undertaking as well as for the risks to 
wli ich the capital remains exposed bg the nature of the business; 

3 rd . Of transfering the property in the capital of the Company in succes- 
sion to those who shall participate regularly in its work, by means of the 
savings of p)rofits allotted to the associate-workers. 

The business is managed by three very capable clerks in my Feast 
Factory, who give up to it their leisure. 



(I) In order to establish the concern as a limited liability Company some of the future 
directors and workmen had subscribed for one share each. 



VII [ INTRODUCTION. 

The management is under the control of one or several commissioners 
and provisionally under my own'. 

The directors as well as the workmen and clerks are reckoned as associate- 
workers, nominated as such by the "Council of Labour", consisting of the 
managing directors, the commissioner (or commissioners) and one delegate 
(or more) of the working associates. Before the nomination every working 
associate is asked to give his opinion on the candidate. 

The associate-workers after one or two years' service becoming share- 
holders, they acquire the right of being present at the general meetings, of 
taking part in the deliberations and of voting. All shareholders have one vote 
per five shares up to the maximum of six. votes. 

The distribution of profits is regulated as follows : 

After the deductions necessary for redemption of buildings and plant, 
6 % of the paid-up capital is paid to the shareholders as interest and premium 
for risk. If the profits in any year or years do not suffice to pay this dividend 
or any part thereof, the other participants will have no claim to any profits 
during the succeeding years, until all the arrears of dividend on capital at the 
rate of 6 % P er annum have been paid to the shareholders. 

This figure 6% is open to discussion. One may raise it to 7, 8, 10% or 
more, according to the nature of the business and the contingent risks, without 
destroying the principle of the limitation of the rights of capital. 

The remainder of the profits is thus divided : 

25 % to the Directors for management ; 

50% to the Associate- Workers (directors, clerks, workmen) pro rata to 
their wages; 

3% to the Commissioners for control; 

12 % to the Founders for services rendered. 

One half of this 12 % 1S reserved to those who have contributed by 
their advice to the foundation of the business; the other half to the original 
shareholders who exposed their capital to the acute risk involved in the 
foundation of a new enterprise. The rights to this share of profits are personal ; 
on the death of one having these rights, his share returns to the associate-workers. 

l!\ this time one founders share has returned in this manner. 

The final 10 % is at the disposal of the general meeting, and will be 
utilised either for the advancement of labour interests in general, or of the 
associated workpeople in particular. 

The share of profits reserved for shareholders, founders and the final 10% 
at the disposal of the general meeting are paid in cash. But the share coining 
to the associate-workers, to each of the directors and workmen, is paid 
parti \ in cash, according to the age and the number of children of each of 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

them; the rest, being at least 50 %, is deposited in the profit savings 
bank, and each time that the amount standing to the credit of a depositor 
reaches the sum of 100 florins, the holder of a numbered share, drawn by lot, 
is repaid this sum of 100 florins, against the transfer of the share to the 
depositor. 

What lias the Van Marken Press become under this system to-day, that 
is to say 8 years from its foundation. 

It has become the most important printing office in Delft. Its turnover 
of 18.300 florins in 1892 has grown year by year to -14.700 in L899. The 
number of workmen-shareholders has advanced from 7 to 13. Their minimum 
salary is 12 florins, whilst the average wage of a compositor in Delft is 
generally 9 florins. 

During- the eight years the nett profits have amounted to the sum of 
53.000 fiorins, the deductions made for redemption of buildings and plant to 
25.000 florins. Of these profits 

10.300 fl. came to the Directorate 
of which 6.900 „ were put in the savings bank and converted into shares 



and the remainder, 3.400 fl. was paid in cash. 

The share of labour has been 
20.900 fl. 
of which 12.300 „ were put in the savings bank and converted into shares 



and the remainder 8.600 fl. was paid in cash. 

The share of the commissioner has been 1230 florins, put at his request 
in the savings bank and converted into shares. 

In short, after 8 years 195 of the 250 shares at 100 florins which 
constituted the share capital, have been paid off to the capitalist founder at 
par, and have passed into the hands of labour in its different forms (management, 
hand labour and control). 

Probably in 2 years more, that is to say after 10 years 
of existence, the motto "Through labour, for labour'' will be 
realised; the shares of the capitalist founder will be entirely 
redeemed. 

The fact that 46 shares have been sold, it may be either to workmen- 
shareholders or to a third party, does not in any way diminish the importance 
of this transference of the capital. Of these 46, 10 belonged to members still 
in service, 13 to members who had established themselves elsewhere and 
23 to dismissed members. 



X INTRODUCTION. 

The moral influence is enormous, the zeal general and complete. One striking 
fact is to be noted : at the general meeting of last year the workmen share- 
holders made the proposal, signed by all. to double the salary of the directors: 
it was voted unanimously. 

In conclusion I must still draw attention to one point of extreme impor- 
tance in this organisation. As has just been said, three shareholders have left 
for various reasons, two have died: 31 shares are to-day in the hands of third 
parties, strangers to the printing works, it is evident that it will not stop 
there, others will leave or will die ; in 20, 30, 40 years all the workmen, 
directors or actual workmen, holders of the shares will have disappeared from 
the printing works, taking their shares, leaving them as an inheritance to 
their children, selling them. There we shall have again capital and labour 
separated one from the other, perhaps one against the other. What will have 
been definitely gained by the system V 

Nothing certainly if you stop at the simple transference of the shares. 
But as soon as the last share has passed from the hands of the original share- 
holders into the hands of labour, we must begin anew the work of transference 
in the same order of the numbered shares as at the first transmission. And 
after this second transference will come the third and so on. So that the last 
profits will always be used to expropriate, for the profit of the acting workmen, 
the shareholders whose capital has had the greatest number of years of service, 
whose shares bear the oldest date of the last transference. 

Criticism is for the jury, for the reader; the end lies with the future. 

As for myself the material as much as the moral results obtained have far 
surpassed my expectations. 

May the success of this little undertaking, as well as the results of the 
less "radical" social organisation of the large industrial works under my 
co-direction, encourage others to repeat the experiments on a larger scale. 
May my work in its entirety contribute in however small a degree to the 
solution of that immense problem "Social Peace". 

And if as the result of my efforts I only succeed in the end in rendering 
the struggle for life a little less hard to some hundreds of my fellow men, in 
throwing one ray of sunshine into a certain number of workmens' dwellings 
around our factories, I shall be consoled for my lost illusions and I shall go 
from this imperfect world with the satisfaction that my passing through it lias 
not been absolutely sterile. 

J. C. VAN MARKEN. 
Delft. June 1900. 



SOCIAL ORG ANISATION OF « 
THE NETHERLANDS YEAST 
AND SPIRIT FACTORY * * 



The mother idea which directed the following social organisation may 
be summed up as follotvs : 

In the existing state of society man 's life traverses three stages. 

First lie demands his daily bread, the means of his immediate material 
existence, for himself and for the family which, according to the lazv of 
nature, he has the right to procreate. 

Then he seeks to insure his daily bread, the material existence of his 
family, in all normal circumstances of life as well as in all its un- 
foreseen crises. 

His material existence being insured, he exacts and has the right to 
exact something beyond : the beautifying of life, the raising of the moral 
and intellectual level, recreation. 

In the existing state of society it is impossible for the mass of mankind 
to attain the latter, too difficult to arrive at the second, often even at the 
first stage. 

In the existing reciprocal relation between capital and labour, it seems 
to me to be the duty of one who has found through favouring circumstances 
or who has created- by his own energy a company of men around him, 
co-workers in a commercial or industrial aim, — it seems to me the duty 
of the employer to aid his subordinates by every means at his command, 
his heart, his intellect, his money, to attain that highest stage which alone 
makes human life worth the living. 

My conviction is that in so doing the employer zvill make no sacri- 
fices. But if he needs must make them, be it from the material or the 
moral point of view, — let him make them up to the limits of his capacity. 
It is his sacred duty. 



The mother idea which directed the following social organisation may 
be summed up as follows : 

In the existing state of society man's life traverses three stages. 

First he demands his daily bread, the means of his immediate material 
existence, for himself and for the family which, according to the law of 
nature, he has the right to procreate. 

Then he seeks to insure his daily bread, the material existence of his 
family, in all normal circumstances of life as well as in all its tin- 
foreseen crises. 

His material existence being insured, he exacts and has the right to 
exact something beyond : the beautifying of life, the raising f the moral 
and intellectual level, recreation. 

In the existing state of society it is impossible for the mass of mankind 
to attain the latter, too difficult to arrive at the second, often even at the 
first stage. 

In the existing reciprocal relation between capital and labour, it seems 
to me to be the duty of one who has found through favouring circumstances 
or who has created by his own energy a company of men around him, 
co-workers in a commercial or industrial aim, — it seems to me the duty 
of the employer to aid his subordinates by every means at his command, 
his heart, his intellect, his money, to attain that highest stage which alone 
makes human life worth the living. 

My conviction is that in so doing the employer will make no sacri- 
fices. But if he needs must make them, be it from the material or the 
moral point of view, — let him make them up to the limits of his capacity. 
It is his sacred duty. 



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Agneta Park. 



I. WORK AND WAGES. 




r 



n a great manufacturing industry, where several hundreds, 
or even thousands of workmen work in a factory managed 
by several chiefs, the individuality of the workman, as such. 
is easily lost. The possibility of bettering his lot by a higher 
wage is, for the generality of men, a strong stimulus toward 
increasing perfection in work and an increase in zeal. In the 
factory where the scale of wages is fairly uniform for the 
great majority of the workpeople, this stimulus either does 
not exist, or if it exists, it slumbers. 

( >n the other hand the decrease and increase of wages. 
if not founded on a fairly reasonable basis, inevitably tend 
to become arbitrary, to lead even to flagrant injustice, which. 
opening the door to jealousy, gives rise to general discontent 
in the workshops. The system that regulates wages is therefore of extreme 
importance, as much so for the working family as tor the quantity and quality 
of work which the business receives. 

Although the wages-question has been studied from the founding of the 
works, its complete organisation could only ripen slowly, and its codification 
was completed only in 1889. These codified principles form part of the 
"Statutes of Labour", proposed by the Directorate and put into force 
after ample debate with the Kernel. (Vide post no. 101). 

l 



The Netherlands Veast 

and Spirit Factory's banner with 

i t-. motto "The Factory for All, 

All for the Factory". 



2 WORK AND WAGES. 

A. BASES OF WAGES. 

a. MINIMUM. 

1. Wages in relation to local wants. 

According to the Statutes of Labour, the minimum wage must be such as 
will suffice for the modest wants of a not too numerous working family. This 
amount is supposed to be, according to the local circumstances at Delft, 
12 florins (£ 1) per week. This constitutes the remuneration which the ordinary 
workman can obtain for the least important work, executed however with 
complete zeal, during a working week of 60 hours. 

Nature has not endowed every one with the genius of a Pasteur nor the 
physical qualities of a Hercules, but every man can display in his work, as 
throughout his life, a maximum of good-will and zeal. 

Starting with these principles the minimum wage is fixed at 16 i / 2 cents (*) 
per hour, that is 9.90 florins per week; the workman who, in his humble 
task, gives proof of complete zeal, of devotion to the "excellent" degree, 
receives an addition of 20 %, and thus gets up to 11.88 florins, or very 
nearly 12 florins. All do not obtain this, but every one can do so, and 
the great majority actually pass this sum of 12 florins. (See the chapter: 
"Premiums"). 

The mean of the wages, including the different premiums excepting 
insurance premiums and the share of profits, of all the workmen and writers 
below the rank of overseer and clerk, has been, weekly 

in 1895 14.20 florins = £ 1.3.8 
„ 1896 14.23 „ =,,1.3.9 
„ 1897 14.50 ,. =,,1.4.2 
„ 1898 14.49 „ =,1.4,2 
„ 1899 14.46 „ = „ 1 . 4 . 1. 

The average working hours during these years have been weekly for 
workmen 68, for clerks 43. 

In 1871 the total amount of wages was fl. 18.300 = £ 1.525, in 1899 
it was fl. 449.859 = £ 37.488. 



(1) One florin in the Netherlands = 1 shilling 8 pence; X cent = V 5 of a penny. 



WORK AND WAGES. -5 

b. CLASSIFICATION. 

Wages according to kind of work. 

Thus, according to the preceding the minimum wage of 1672 cents per 
hour is paid for work which demands only a minimum of experience, of 
responsibility, of strength, and no special skill. Whenever the work demands 
strength of body, special aptitude, great precision, the minimum is increased 
by stages of x j 2 cent up to 21 cents per hour. A table, inserted in the Statutes 
of Labour, indicates the amount of wages per hour for every kind of work 
which is done in the factory. 

This is the classification of the workmen and gangers only, beyond this, 
the most numerous category, the Statutes of Labour include the following ranks : 

Writers (clerical or office workmen, who. in the hierarchy, have the same 
rank as the manual or factory labourers); 

Foremen and junior clerks ; 

( )vcrseers and clerks ; 

Higher employees (chiefs of departments). 



B. ADDITIONS TO WAGES. 

Remuneration of labour 1871— '99 . . .5.861.138 fl. =£488.426 
of which 

Premiums for zeal 1874— '99 507.553 „ = „ 42.296 

„ „ insurance of pension 1887— '99 263.548 „ = „ 21.962 

Profit sharing 1879— '99 168.162 „ = ,, 14.013 

a. PREMIUMS. 

3. Premium for extra work. 

For Sunday labour the workman receives 25 % above his wages. 

Work done during the time (iy 2 hours) set apart for the afternoon meal 
is reckoned as Sunday labour. 

Work done after 9 p. m. and before 6 a. m. is reckoned as night work, 
and for these hours the workmen receive 10 % above their wages. As regards 
the regular night gang, the night service is deemed to begin at 6 o'clock in 
the evening. 

All work beyond 12 hours in a day of 24 hours is also reckoned as extra 
work giving the right to 10 °/ above the normal wage. 



[ work and wages 

Premium for skill. 

Although the nature of the articles produced does not require any special 
knowledge on the part of those who work at its manufacture properly so- 
called, there are nevertheless amongst them some few 7 , for example, the deputies, 
who become familial' with the processes of manufacture and thus acquire a 
certain skill which may be useful to them in the discharge of their duties. 
But. besides these, there is a number of other members of the staff — stokers, 
smiths, carpenters, office clerks etc. — of whom one must say that they must 
possess special knowledge. 

While therefore estimating the degree of zeal, judgment is also passed, 
as far as is necessary, upon skill. This judgment gives rise to a division into 
.") degrees of skill, to which is attached a corresponding addition to wanes 
(premium for skill) rising to 2, 5, 10 and 20%- 

For the stokers and artisans, whose skill is also regularly judged, the 
system is varied at their own request in that the degree of skill is remune- 
rated directly by a higher hourly wage, according' to the custom of the 
town. 

Premium for zeal. 

Several times a year each member of the staff invested with any authority 
makes a verbal report on the zeal of his subordinates to the head of the 
section of the "Interests of the Staff". Towards the end of the year this head 
of the section prepares with the assistance of these various reports, a g-eneral 
report which he presents to the Directorate. The latter, while deviating 
when necessary from this report, fixes the final figure of each member of 
the staff. 

In conformity with this figure, the whole of the staff is divided on the 
1 st of January in each year into classes of zeal (insufficient, medium, good. 
very good and excellent). These five classes had heen originally adopted in 
the Statutes of Labour. The following case, however, often presented itself 
at the final judgment : several members of the staff although at least above 
the third class had yet no pretensions to the fourth. Consequently, as the 
adopted classification did not offer a sufficient distinction, an intermediate class 
was inserted between classes three and four. 

Every employee begins in the first class. The simple workman or writer 
must by his zeal, make himself worthy to pass into the second class after 
one year, into the third after two years; otherwise he is dismissed, ft 
is not necessary, however, that he should climb higher. But the third, 
that is to say the good medium, does not suffice in the higher grades. 



WORK AND WAGES. 5 

The overseer and the clerk must after three years attain to the fourth class : 
v e r y g o o d. Finally, the engineers and higher employees have to show complete 
zeal, [n order not to be dismissed they must advance from year to year to 
the 5 th , that is to say the class of excellence. — He who, having arrived at 
the 4 th or 5 th class, makes a step in rank (e. g. from workman to foreman, 
from junior clerk to clerk) where he has not yet been able to prove himself, 
falls back into the third, whence he has to mount the scale anew. 

On the 1 st of .January 1899, the workmen working by the week were 
classified as follows : 

1 in the 1 st class, 
21 2 nd 

jl 11 11 -' 11 

40 3 rd 

* w ii ii ' ii 



73 „ „ „ intermediate, 

ii 



149 „ „ 4 th 



27 5 th 

- 1 ' ii ii ,J ii 

This table shews that promotion to the 5 th class presents the character of 
a quite peculiar distinction, that "excellence" is rare enough in this imperfect 
world. 

To this classification — which has other advantages (see for example 
Profit Sharing, no. 9) — are attached the following premiums, in addition 
to wages : 

in the 1 st class °/o, 

9nd o 0/ 

11 11 -• 11 ^ /Oj 

ord c 0/ 

ii ii ° ii ° ,'0; 

„ „ „ intermediate 7 l / 2 %, 

Ith 1A 0/ 

11 ii ^ 11 1U /o> 

11 11 •> ii 4U /o- 

In making mention of this classification, it would not be right to pass over 

in silence the fact that it is sometimes violently attacked by the socialists. 

These latter pretend that the system of espionage — as they are pleased 
to call it — does nothing more than create and foster hypocrisy and discontent. 
This conduct has nothing in it to astonish us, since the idea of "devotion to 
the interests of the master" does not enter into the socialistic doctrine, which 
preaches an implacable enmity between the master and the capitalist on the 
one side, and the workman on the other. There is no pretense that the Direc- 
torate believes its system of appraisement infallible : it exacts on the part of 
the chiefs a delicate discrimination, which may easily at times be wanting; 
moreover the Directorate does not deny that length of service, proved fidelity 



6 WORK AND WAGES. 

to the Company, to the factory, should perhaps count for more than has 
hitherto been the case. Speaking generally, the Directorate nevertheless holds 
this as indisputable; on the one side the feeling that one ought from time to 
time to give an account of the way in which subordinates perform their tasks; 
on the other the feeling that the chiefs keep themselves regularly informed 
as to the way in which one does one's duty; this double fact exercises, in 
more than one relation, a good influence. 

We dare to affirm the fact that all the chiefs, from the simple ganger 
to the first engineer prove more and more, in their reports and discussions on 
the merits of individuals, that they are tilled with a sense of the high moral 
responsibility which this judgment entails upon them. Often mi the morrow 
they return to add a detail, to correct or complete a judgment when they 
fear that they have explained themselves badly. For the majority it is truly 
a case of conscience. 

6. Premium for co-operation. 

There are certain operations which are the better effected as there is more 
of a spirit of co-operation among the co-workers or with the subordinates. 
The Directorate recognises the utility of this good understanding by giving 
premiums of 5 % an( l °f 10 % according as it is reckoned good or 
excellent. 

b. INSURANCES. 

7. Premiums paid by the Company. 

The daily bread beine. gained we have the first stage in human existence. 
Even if this bread is relatively plentiful, it counts but little if it is not assured 
during all the expected and unforeseen crises of life. The sickness of the 
bread-winner means only too often the misery, and if it be too prolonged, the 
ruin of the working family. The mechanic earning a good living to-day, is 
caught to-morrow in a gearing, which destroys at one blow all that which 
constituted his capital. Death strikes down another in the flower of his age; 
his widow- and children must crave the dole of charity. And he whose good 
fortune it is to pass through all the crises of life, looks with anxiety at the 
future when his enfeebled power of work will no longer find a purchaser. 
We say to him: "Insure yourself against illness, accident, old age and death" : 
but who will pay all these premiums out of a salary based upon "the satis- 
faction of the modest needs of a working family"? 

The Company has answered: it is I! 



WORK AND WAGES. / 

c. GRATUITIES. 

8. Rewards fob exceptional merit. 

Although as a general rule one may demand that eacli one shall conse- 
crate his energies to the task which lie has undertaken, and that the measure 
in which each individual does so is expressed in the award of the aforesaid 
premiums, circumstances occasionally occur in which it is right to speak of 
knowledge and of services as exceeding the limits which one may reasonably 
tix for certain posts. Examples have happened in the history of the Company, 
and in every grade, in the laboratory of the savant as in the workshop. We 
may cite as an example the "invention 1 ' of a simple workman (whose duty 
was to compress the yeast) for cleaning and using again a certain very costly 
kind of gauze, which had hitherto to be thrown away after being once used. 
Or the case where a terrible accident was avoided by the activity of 
one man. 

The Directorate is not a partisan of the system of rewards, it prefers to 
accord rights rather than grant favours. As, however, it is impossible to 
lix in advance the nature, extent and importance of these special services, the 
staff must rely upon the loyalty of the Directorate, which has believed itself 
bound to reserve to itself the system of rewards in exceptional cases. 

d. PROFIT SHARING. 

9. Individual share of profits. 

In 1880 the general meeting of the shareholders voted unanimously the 
following amplification of the Articles of Association of the Company : 

(Art. 24.) "The remaining profit (after 5 °/ on the share capital has 
been paid to the shareholders) shall be divided as follows : 

10% is put at the disposal of the Directorate and the Commissioners, 
that they may employ it, as they may think fit, for the benefit of the staff, 
after having heard it if requested. They are not to be held accountable to 
anyone as to the way in which it is used, unless it be to the general meeting 
of shareholders/" 

Although the annual sum of which one might thus dispose was originally 
destined for the retiring-pensions' fund (Vide post no. 42), from 1887 the 
insurance premiums have been borne by the general expenses and the share 



WORK AND WAGES. 



of the profits is divided, either totally or in part, amongst the members of the 
staff, individually, in proportion to their total wage and classification for the 
year. They receive their share pro rata 



one half . . . . 


1 st 


class 


of zeal 


three-quarters . . 


Ond 


» 


V 




3rd 






one and a quarter . 






V 

„ intermediate 


one and a half . . 


4 th 


» 


» 


double 


Kth 


V 


V 



Although at first it was stipulated that one must save from the share 
of profit as much as from the premiums (Vide post no. 18) the Kernel in 
1893, after being repeatedly urged, more particularly by the younger members 
of the staff, asked and the Directorate approved that this regulation shall 
only hold in cases where the share of profits amounts, in the 3 rd class, to 
more than 4 % 0I the total wage. 

The Kernel, at its annual meeting, (Vide post no. 101), generally grants 
from the share of profits gratuities to the widows of deceased comrades, to 
apprentices and to those who, while not being on the permanent staff, have 
worked in the factories during the greater part of the preceding year. 

10. Collective share of profits. 

According to the Statutes of Labour, the Kernel has the right to reserve at 
most 10 °/ of the profits which go to the permanent staff (Vide supra no. 9). 
Generally it decides to use this right: these allocations form the "Fund for 
common purposes," which constitues a part of the resources of the social in- 
stitutions of the Company. Thus in 1891 it was decided by the Kernel to offer 
2500 florins to the Directorate as a contribution to the foundation of the 
building "The Community" (Vide no. 75). 

11. Special share of profits. 

In 1895, on the occasion of the 25 th anniversary of the factory, the 
general meeting of shareholders resolved to complete article 24 afore-mentioned 
(Vide no. 9) of the Articles of xVssociation, among others, by the following: 

"The remainder (after 5% on the subscribed capital has been paid to the 
shareholders) shall be divided as follows : 

5 °/o is P u ^ a t the disposal of the Directorate and Commissioners, to be 



WORK AND WAGES. » 

employed by them in the interests of the staff of the firm; in the first place 
to supplement the retiring pension of the old members of the staff, who, by 
reason of their advanced age at the time of the putting- into force of the 
adopted system of insurance of an annuity for life, on attaining the age of 60 
have acquired or will acquire the right to an insufficient pension; and after- 
wards to assure to the workman the payment of a certain sum in case he is 
invalided. This shall all be done in the way which the Directorate and Com- 
missioners may think tit. without their being accountable for the use thereof 
to any person whatsoever, unless it be the general meeting of shareholders". 

To this 5 °/ Mr. Van Marken has temporarily added an equal amount. 
constituting the personal share which the general meeting voted to him on the 
same occasion. 

More precise details relating to the use made of this share of the profits 
will be found under no. 42. 



C, BASES OF HOURS OF LABOUR. 

a. DURATION OF WORK. 

12. Normal worktime (60 hours weekly). 

Workpeople in Holland have generally long hours of work; according to 
the reports of labour inspectors there were, in 1897,9910 factories inspected, 
of which 6621 had a daily worktime of 11 hours and upwards. 

The Directorate did not hesitate to fix the normal rate at 10 hours per 
day. It only regrets that it has not been found possible' to reduce to the same 
rate the night shift, which is of 11 hours. 

13. Limitation of overtime,- of night work, of Sunday labour. 

In a fermentation business it is impossible to interrupt the course of 
manufacture. The work is continuous, and the shifts follow each other regularly, 
day. night, Sunday. 

This work is however reduced to the lowest possible minimum. 

A worktime of more than 14 hours in the 24 is absolutely forbidden. 

On Sunday, that is to say between 6 a. m. and 6 p. m. the work of 
each workman must be preceded or followed by 24 hours rest. 



10 WORK AND WAGES. 

b. HOLIDAYS. 

14. Three days holiday per annum minimum. 

Since 1S90 each member of the staff has the right to three days holiday 
annually, with full pay. These three days may be taken consecutively, or at 
intervals, or in six half days as desired. The only condition imposed by the 
Directorate is that one must arrange beforehand with his immediate chief, so 
that the work of the factory may not be interrupted. 

To the office staff, clerks and superior officials holidays from one to three 
weeks are granted: they also receive their salary in full. 

Generally speaking, days and hours of absence, beyond the above-mentioned 
holidays, must be asked for and granted, and save in exceptional cases, thej 
are deducted from wages. In case of a prolonged holiday for the restoration 
of health, the Company pays, sometimes for several months, the full wage, 
without regard to the rank of the sick person. 




A workman's family at hi 



Interior of a workman's dwelling. 



A street in Agneta Park. 



II. MATERIAL INTERESTS. 



A. SUPPORT DURING NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES OF LIFE. 

a. REGULATION OF THE BUDGET. 

1"). Payment of a fixed sum weekly. 

The wages of the workmen are fairly variable: the same workman docs 
not always perform the same work : sometimes exceptional circumstances oblige 
him to work beyond the ordinary period ; sometimes a gang of workmen 
undertakes a job on contract; on another occasion a workman has obtained 
a few days leave beyond his annual holidays. 

Nevertheless the mother of the family can only regulate the household 
expenses if she is assured a fixed sum on pay day; for this reason the 
workman receives, at the beginning of each year, a communication informing 
him of the amount which will be paid him as "average wage" every Saturday. 
At the time of payment the sum is accompanied by a notice indicating the 
amount actually earned during the preceding week, so that the workman can 
at once reckon the amount remaining due to him and make a claim if there 
should be any error. 

10. Quarterly balancing of wages and premiums. 

At the end of every quarter each workman's account is prepared by the 
wages department. The number of hours worked is multiplied by the hourly 
wa»'e, and the premiums (Vide nos. 3 — 6) and bonuses to which the workman 
has a right are added. Deduction having been made of the amounts received 
each week, of the contributions to the sick and widows 1 funds and for the 
compulsory savings bank, if there are any, etc. the quarterly account is paid 
to the workman. This quarterly regulation, by putting the workman in possession 
of from 5 to 65 florins extra per quarter, enables him to meet the extraordinary 
and necessary expenses for which the "average wage", does not suffice. This 
institution is so highly appreciated that, although this "quarterly regulation" 
is absolutely optional, only 13 out of .'550 workmen preferred in 1899 to receive 
their exact account weekly. Some have even asked for a reduction of the 



12 MATERIAL INTERESTS. 

average wage in order thai they might have a larger sum to dispose of on the 
day of the quarterly regulation. The importance which the Directorate 
attaches to its system of wages is reflected in the organisation of the wages 
account, which particularly interests the economists and business men who 
visit the factories, or who ask in writing for information about our social 
organisation. 

b. SAVINGS. 

17. Voluntary savings bank. 

Deposits free. Kate of interest 5 %. At the office of the section for the 
•'Interests of the Staff" money can be paid in or withdrawn at any time. 

Each depositor receives on his first payment a booklet issued by the 
Directorate in which all deposits and withdrawals are noted and the 
interest entered. 

The use that is made of this institution is not as extended as one might 
wish. This may be explained partly, by the fact that besides this bank, there 
is the ■'Premium Savings Bank" which is described hereunder, partly by this 
further fact that the majority of the members of the staff are men in the 
Hower of life who sometimes have large families to bring up. 
Deposits and interest 1875—189!) . . . 131.75i.5S 5 florins (£ 10.980) 

Withdrawals 1875—1899 94.341.65 5 „ („ 7.862) 

On 31 Dec. 1899, 276 persons had the 

right to a balance of 37.412.93 florins (£ 3.118) 

18. Compulsory savings bank. 

The premiums for zeal and co-operation (Vide nos. 5 and 6) and the 
share of nett profits (Vide no. 9) are not paid entirely in cash to all the 
members of the staff. A part, according to the age of the person concerned and 
to the number of his children, is paid into the "Premium Savings Bank". 

The following proportion of their premiums and of their share of profits 
is paid in by : 

young men under 18 (apprentices). . . 90% 

„ „ from 18 to 23 75% 

unmarried men over 23 50 % 

married men without children .... 40 % 
„ .. with one child tinder 15 . 30% 

„ .. „ two children „ „ . 20 % 

„ „ ,. three „ „ „ . 1 / ; 
only „ „ „ four „ „ „ receive then* premiums and 
their proportion of profits in their entirety in cash. 



MATERIAL INTERESTS. 13 

Interest at 1 % (4 "/ annually) on the amounts paid into the compulsory 
premium savings bank, is credited every three months to each depositor. The 
hitter receives, at the end of each quarter, an abstract of his account. The 
revenue thus obtained, may be taken once annually. 

Withdrawals take place on the occasion of marriage (Yide no. 39); the 
lying in of the workman's wife (Vide no. 40); when the depositor attains 
the age of 60 (Vide no. 41) and in case of death (Vide no. 44). In any of 
the other particular circumstances of life withdrawals may be asked for, the 
Directorate decides whether these circumstances, as alleged by the workman, 
justify a total or partial withdrawal. 

This obligation to save has always had happy results, which have been 
generally appreciated by all those who have experienced them. Of late, there 
are those who call for the abolition of this compulsory saving; such a 
proceeding would certainly be equivalent to the suppression of the Bank and 
(Might to be considered a most regrettable fact. 

The advocates of this abolition pretend that the members of the staff are 
men enough to watch over their personal material interests and those of their 
families themselves, they forget that few individuals are strong enough to 
deprive themselves of the satisfaction of the daily wants of the family, in 
order to put something on one side, in view of the extraordinary circumstances 
of life. ( )nce obliged to do so, then the household expenditure is regulated 
on the fixed weekly revenue, and the deprivation of a few pence is hardly 
felt. Besides this method of saving allows young people to get married 
without making debts which often weigh heavily and for a long time on the 
household, and from which they often do not free themselves during a lifetime, 
having once contracted the habit. 

Deposits and interest 1879—1899 . . . 169.591.4r> 5 florins (£ 14.133) 

Repayments 1879—1899 120.842.66 „ ( „ 10.070) 

On the 31^t Dec. 1899 264 persons had 

the right to a balance of 48. 748.79 s florins (£ 4.063) 

C. SHARK EN THE COMPANY'S CAPITAL. 

19 Parts of shares. 

If, by virtue of the profit sharing system, each member of the staff is more 
or less directly interested in the results of the Company's work, there is yet 
another way in which lie may enjoy ets fruits, by investing his savings in the 
share capital of the Company. In 1882 Mr. A^an Marken placed at the disposal 
of the section for the "Interests of the Staff", ten shares of 1000 florins at the 
issued price of 120 %, and founded "The administration of ten shares in the 
Netherlands Veast and Spirit Factory". This administration issues share certi- 



14 



MATERIAL INTERESTS. 



20. 



21. 



ficates of 10 florins each to any member who desires to buy them, up to a 
maximum of 10 shares (100 florins per head). 

.Mr. Van Marken has bound himself to take up again any of these 
certificates at any time at the price of issue, 12 florins. 

( Mi 31 Dec. 1899, 57 persons held 510 parts of shares. 

d. HYGIENE AND SAFETY IX THE FACTORY. 

Workmen's watch committee. 

This committee, composed of three members of the staff, is charged with 
the duty of regularly examining anything which can be done in the interests 
of health and security. Thanks to its control, one 
may say that everything possible lias 
been done from 
the point 
of view of 




Refreshment room and "Villa". 

security; the committee is equally busy with the care of sanitary measures. 
These efforts, made with a view of bettering the security and health of 
the staff', arc not always sufficiently appreciated by them; on more than one 
occasion it has been necessary to threaten with punishment those who refuse 
to observe the measures decreed in the interests of health and safety. 

Fire brigade. 

The machinery at the disposal of the brigade is : one steam engine, one 
hand engine and several tap extinguishers. 



MATERIAL INTERESTS. 



15 



The fire brigade, to which workmen of every shift belong, is a complete 
organisation of its kind. Under the command of the works' manager practices 
with the machinery regularly take place. 

22. Refreshment room. 

The comfortable refreshment room, with its pretty balcony looking out 
on to the Park, gives an opportunity of taking light meals during the half 
hour rests, which are too short to allow of going back home. Coffee may bo 




Refreshment room. 

bought there, and there arc to be found the most widely circulated newspapers, 
-ames of dominoes, draughts, chess, and in the neighbouring hall of the 
"Villa" (Vide no. 73) a billiard table and stereoscopes. 

At night during the hours for meals, one may rest in the dormitory, 
situated below the refreshment room. Simple camp beds allow the workman 
to lay himself down to sleep. 



10 



MATERIAL INTERESTS. 



There are certain operations which do not admit of a few of the workmen 
going' home during the afternoon meal-time. These are allowed to bring their 

dinners to the refectory, where there is a special apparatus which keeps the 
dishes quite hot, but of winch the workmen scarcely ever make use. 



23. Baths. 

The bath rooms, to the number of four, give an opportunity of taking a 
douche. By means of different taps the temperature of the water may be 
modified. Close to the dressing ward, there is a bath which may be used to 
take medicinal baths prescribed by the doctor. The shower-bath arrangements 
tiaving become insufficient for the ever increasing number of workmen, plans 
of reconstruction and enlargement are at the present moment under examination. 
It is certain that the use of these baths, which is not very great, will "row- 
when the installation is more perfect. 

24. Working costumes. 

The factory workmen each 
receive three working costumes. 
In chosing the patterns, due regard 
has been paid to safety. The 
workpeople have them washed 
and mended themselves. If they 
are beyond repair — of which the 
store-keeper is the judge — the 
old clothes may be exchanged 
for new ones. 

Wardrobe. 

25. Wardrobe. 

Each workman has at his own disposal a locked wardrobe, in which he 
can lock up his clothes after having put on his workshop costume. 

e, CO-OPERATION ("Collective Property Co. Limited"). 

Founded in 188-4. Share capital 160.000 florins in 1600 shares of 100 
florins each. Of this number 320 shares were disposed of and issued at the 
beginning. The remaining amount of 128.000 florins' worth of shares being 
unapplied for, the Company raised a loan of 128.000 florins at i l j 2 %. 

The objects of the Company are : 

1 st . to buy, build and lease sanitary houses, workshops, shops, wash- 





AGNETA PARK. 
Types of workmen's dwellings 



MATERIAL INTERESTS. 17 

houses and baths, on the lands belonging to the Company in Agneta Park 
(Vide no. 26), or on lands adjoining the Netherlands Yeast and Spirit Co.; 

2 nd . to manufacture and sell by retail articles of daily consumption 
(Vide no. 28 and 29); 

3 rd . to manage establishments serving for physical and intellectual develop- 
ment (Vide no. 73). 

All these are to be done in the first instance for the profit of the staff 
of the Yeast. Oil and (Hue Factories, of the Van Marken Tress and for the 
profit of the members of the limited Company. 

Each member of the staff of these different establishments is perfectly 
free to purchase or not from the stores of the "Collective Property Co." 

Having paid from the net profits the 4 1 / 2 °/ interest on the loan of this 
Company (which is absolutely independent of the factories), five per cent is 
deducted for the shareholders. The remainder is divided amongst the customers 
at the stores and the tenants of the dwellings, proportionately to the amount 
of their purchases and to the rent they have paid. However, instead of receiving 
this share of the profits in cash, it is handed to them in the shape of shares 
or parts of shares in the Company. The loan debentures and afterwards the 
shares are redeemed at par with the disposable cash resulting from profits. 
In this way the assets of the Company will, at the end of 30 to 40 years, 
have become the "Collective Property" of the new shareholders, that is to say 
of the former and present members of the staff, living in the Park, or dealing 
with the Company's stores, unless they have preferred to dispose of their shares. 

(Tor fuller details, Vide nos. 26—2'.)). 

26. Workmen's dwellings. 

For the construction of these houses, after serious study, the system of 
little groups (English cottages) has been preferred to the so-called 
barracks; that is to say small buildings for one or a very small 
number of families are preferred to great buildings for a relatively large 
number of families, with a right of common use of main entries, landings, 
stair-cases, courts etc.. of which the " Familistere de Guise" is so brilliant 
an example. 

Advantages of the system of small groups: 

T 1 . Greater personal liberty for each family. 

2 nd . Greater cleanliness, 

3 rd . Fewer subjects for disputes between neighbours. 

Disadvantages of the system of little groups : Construction and improve- 
ment more costly. 

The •'Collective Property" houses have been built solidly and with taste. 



18 



MATERiAL INTERESTS. 



both as regards their exterior and interior. Each house is fronted with a corner 
of ground, (of about 13 square yards) where the tenants invariably cultivate 
flowers and other plants (Vide also no. 93). 

This organisation of the Company (Vide supra) allows the inhabitants of 
the Park to acquire a right of collective proprietorship in these houses. In- 
dividual proprietorship is tabooed. 








Az. 



*, 



:$* 






riife 






&•»£- 



«gfe 



■*■ 



<£& 



mm 



* «*-V- 



Here are, 
amongst others, some 
of the advantages of a collective 
proprietorship : the possibility of a 
constant watch on the upkeep 
of the houses, which prevents 
their being neglected to the 
prejudice of the neighbours. Col- 
lective proprietorship also hinders 
arbitrary changes and spoiling of 
the form of the dwellings. Reci- 
procal surveillance, preventing the 
ruin of the house. Mutual agreement 
on all that may be done with 
regard to the houses in the inte- 
rest of the inhabitants. Above all 
the great moral advantage : develop- 
ment of solidarity. 

Although each member of the staff of the industrial establishments afore- 
mentioned is absolutely free to live in Agneta Park or elsewhere, the number 
of unlet houses has left little to be desired of late years. In spite of this 
fact the letting of the houses shows a disadvantageous figure in the profit 
and loss account of the Company. This disadvantageous figure is due in great 
part to the want of solidarity of a certain number of inhabitants who some- 
times ruin the interior of the houses, in order that they may then exact 
from the Company repairs that have become necessary. However progress 
can already be reported for a considerable time past. Among the tenants is 



Allotment gardens in Agneta Park, in the background 
a part of the Park and of the factories. 



MATERIAL INTERESTS. 



19 



found a large group of good elements, upon whom the continuous efforts made 
to foster the feeling of solidarity have not failed to exercise a visibly happy 
influence. 

The number of families living in Agneta Park amounted on the 1 st January 
1900 to 74, giving a total of 386 persons. 

Allotment karuens. 

In a field quite close to the Park there are separate allotments of varying 
sizes which may be rented by the inhabitants of the Park so lout;' as there 
are lands available, at an average rent of 1 ft. 75 c. per 100 sq. 
metres. 

This opportunity of cultivating the soil after being all day at the factory 
is much appreciated; in 1899 the number of tenants was P.). together cultivat- 
ing the available ground of 10.000 sq. metres (4 acres). 



28. Grocery stores. 

< >ne shop in Agneta Park; another in the centre of the town of Delft. 

Annual sales from the stores in the Park 40.000 fl., of the stores in the 

town 20,000 fl. 

In these stores may be found, so to speak, all those articles which may 

be considered primarily necessary in every house; first, groceries in the widest 

sense; then bread, butter, sausages, bacon, etc.. besides these, coal, glass 

ware, pottery, tobacco and cigars, beer, wine, etc. 

Purchasers who receive their wages weekly have to pay at the week 

end; clerks paid by the month at the end of the month. Every purchaser who 

owes nothing at the end of the 
quarter receives a premium or 
discount of 2 % on the sum 
total of his purchases. The sales 
from the shops, although not 
insufficient, have not increased 
in the same degree as the staff 
of the various industrial esta- 
blishments, for whose profit the 
Company was founded. All the 
articles in the shops are more- 
over of the first quality and 
are sold at the same price as 

Grocery .tore. ill private SllOpS. 




20 



MATERIAL [NTERESTS. 



29. Haberdashery and clothing store. 

Annua] sale 14.000 fl. 

This store could not and is not intended to suffice for all the exigencies 
of the caprices of fashion: but at the same time it is well supplied with 
haberdashery, with strong and durable stuffs tor clothes and household articles. 
and with garments of ordinary manufacture. 







Clothing store. 



B. SUPPORT IN CRITICAL TIMES. 



a. SICKNESS. 



30. Wages paid for 8 weeks. 



In case of illness, each member of the permanent staff has the righl to 
his ordinary wages, for two months or eight weeks, at the maximum. 

For those who have no fixed wage, either by the month or the week. 
the sum to he paid is regulated by the average wage earned ordinarily. 

If the sick person draws, in addition, pay from a sick fund, this latter 
is deposited, in his name, in the compulsory savings hank. 



material interests. 21 

31. Compulsory Sick-Club. 

The members of the staff, with their families, are obliged to belong to 
this club. They pay a weekly contribution of 

12 cents for the man 
8 „ „ „ wife 
3 „ „ each child under 18. 

Children, having attained the age o'f 18, may be admitted as extraordinary 
members. 

Each member chooses any doctor he wishes, provided the latter subscribes 
to the conditions of the club. (All the doctors in Delft have accepted them). 
The doctor may be changed at the beginning of each quarter. The club pays 
for all consultations at the doctor's house. The members have, however, the 
right to demand the attendance of the doctor at their own homes; in this case 
they pay to the club, over and above their contribution, from 5 to 15 cents 
per visit (up to a maximum of 5 visits a week; if the number of visits 
exceeds this maximum, it is the club which pays), according to the rank they 
occupy on the staff (night visits, double). 

To have a prescription made up, two cents are due to the club, payable 
on delivery of the medicine. 

This is the contract made by the club with the doctors and the chemist: 

The revenue of the club (contributions, money paid for visits at home 
and for medicine) is used for paying the doctors and the chemist. The materials 
for dressing', trusses and the cost of administration are not carried to the 
account of the club. The net cost of the medicines (ingredients and packing) 
is deducted from the revenue of the club. The remainder is paid to the 
doctors, 82 °/o, and the chemist 18 °/ . The 82 % i s P au ^ to the doctors in 
proportion to the number of members (men. women and children) inscribed in 
the books of each one among them. 

The members show themselves very well satisfied with the club ; above 
all they appreciate the liberty of choosing their own doctor. 

During' a large number of years, the financial results of the (dub were 
such that the Company had to make up considerable deficits. Thus, for the 
working of 1896, the deficit amounted to no less than 2.600 florins. It was 
not possible to augment the contributions, as these were already high in 
comparison with other sick funds. The deficits were due to the arrangements 
made with the doctors and the chemist: the former received for each domi- 
ciliary visit 40 cents, for each consultation at their own houses 25 cents; and 
the chemist made out his bill without being bound by any formal agreement. 
The doctors and the chemist, recognising' that the Company could not make 
up such considerable deficits ever) year, and sympathising' with the objects of 



22 MATERIAL INTERESTS. 

the club, were disposed to accept the conditions above-mentioned. The staff 
ought to be grateful to these gentlemen for this kindness. 

•")•_'. Voluntary mutual aid society. 

A society of the members of the staff, with the object of mutual help. 
Membership optional; subscription 5 cents a week. 

( >n the 1 st of January 1900, the number of members was 80, with an 
income of about 250 florins and a capital of 700 florins. 

'■VI. Material and moral support of the family. 

If the duration of the illness exceeds the fixed term, the further pro- 
visional assistance of the invalid is regulated by the Directorate, in concert 
with the chief of the section for the "Interests of the Staff''. 

From the preceding, it follows that, if the illness is prolonged beyond 
eight weeks, the right to help has ceased; nevertheless it also follows that 
the Directorate does not abandon the patient, if there is need. Although it 
does not wish to create any right, it has adopted as a principle, that the 
help given shall be in proportion to the number of children and the length 
of service. 

The bachelor is paid 4 florins a week; if the man is married 2 florins 
are added to this sum; if he lias children, this amount is increased by 1 florin 
for each child under 15; these sums are further increased by 15 cents a week 
for each year of service. The help given may not exceed the maximum, fixed 
at K) florins a week. 

•'54. .Sister of charity (lay). Sick-attendant. 

A lady employee (who may be called a lay sister of charity), attached 
to the section of the "Interests of the Staff 1 ', and who is in frequent contact 
with the families, visits them regularly in case of illness; if there is need 
for it and the circumstances justify it, she renders help in procuring stimulants 
for them. 

Siel< and wounded persons who have to undergo special treatment, or 
who need their dressings changed, are occasionally sent back by the surgeon 
to the dressing ward (Vide no. 35) of the factory. The latter gives instruc- 
tions to the foreman sick attendant, who has to be in attendance at fixed 
times, and who, carefully following these instructions, has, in many cases, done 
excellent service. 



MATERIAL INTERESTS. 



23 



b. ACCIDENTS. 
35. Dressing ward. 

A special room is arranged in order that in ease of accidents first aid 
can be given. It is furnished with all necessary apparatus as advised by 
the surgeons. 

3C>. Ambulance class. 

For some years past the Directorate has ordered several members of the 
staff to attend courses in elementary surgery, courses which several doctors 
have given with the greatest benevolence for the good of this institution. 



37. Wages paid until recovery. 

Whoever in the service of the Company is the victim of an accident 
receives medical and surgical treatment and his wages in full up to the end 
of the treatment. For those who are members of the permanent staff this 
treatment is charged to the factory "Sick club" (mem bership obligatory). For 
those, who without being members of the permanent staff are reckoned among 
the irregular workmen (that is to say who are taken on when required at the 

time), this help is given by 
whatever sick fund they may 
belong to ; if not a member of 
any such fund the Company un- 
dertakes the charge. The special 
surgical treatment is paid for 
by the Company, unless the 
injured person is treated gra- 
tuitously in a hospital. In every 
case the Company undertakes 
to pay the wages. At the 
beginning, the Company had 
for 7 years a contract with 

Dressing ward. a TJ u tch CompailV fol' ACCl- 

dents followed by death or for absolute or partial disablement. Thus, the 
staff had the right to the benefits which the Company undertook to give: in 
case of death or of absolute impossibility to work, double one year's salary, in 
case of partial disablement from work, a smaller sum in proportion to the 
gravity of the accident. 

Fxperience having however shewn during a long period that the premiums 
paid to this Company each year, considerably exceeded the amount received 




24 MATERIAL INTERESTS. 

in benefits; that the payment of the total amount in one sum defeated the 
end in view and finally, and above all, that this sum was absolutely insufficient 
for the needs of the case: in L893, it was decided that the Company should take 
these cases of accident at its own risk and peril, a proceeding which could 
have no inconvenient consequences, seeing the ever growing' numbers of the 
workpeople. This arrangement has preserved to the staff the rights formerly 
guaranteed by the Company, it is only in the case of a few irregular 
artisans (carpenters, painters etc.) that a contract is still in existence, owing 
to quite exceptional circumstances. 

38. Material and moral support of permanent invalids. 

Should an accident result in absolute or partial disablement, the interested 
party is consulted as to whether he wishes to remain in the factory in another 
capacity or to be retired. Up to now, these workmen have always remained; 
little by little they have become habituated to new work, which occasionally 
has enabled them to earn higher wages than formerly. The retiring pension 
which may be given to those who work by the week — regulated on the 
pensions in cases of permanent disability (not due to accident or continued 
illness) — would amount to a maximum of 10 florins a week; for the rest it 
would be fixed with regard to the degree of incapacity, to the position of the 
family and to the number of years of service of the interested party. 

The irregular workers — whether a contract has been made on their 
behalf or not with an assurance company — cannot make valid any other right 
than that of the benefit which would be given or is actually given in virtue 
of such a contract. It is necessary however to remark, that in case of 
insufficiency of such benefit, the Company comes to the help of the sufferer, 
as far as is possible. 

In case of death as the result of the accident, the widow and children 
receive a maximum pension of 8 florins a week, if he were a member of the 
permanent staff (Vide no. 45). The family of an irregular workman receives, 
in lieu of a pension, double one year's wages. 

c. MARRIAGE. 

39. Partial withdrawal of compulsory savings (Vide n<>. 18). 

( )n marriage, one has the right to withdraw from the compulsory 
savings bank a sum equal to twenty-five times one week's wages, provided 
that the total saved amounts to this sum. 

Total withdrawals 1879— '99 (166 marriages) 2 f..">20 florins stents {£ 2.044). 



MATERIAL INTERESTS. . 25 

d. ACCOUCHEMENT. 

40. Partial withdrawal of compulsory savings. 

Withdrawal of twice the amount of one week's wages, on the condition 
afore-mentioned (Vide no. -"> ( .»). 

Total withdrawals 1S7 ( .» -'99 (858 accouchements) (.6.585 fl. 45 cents (^1.382). 

e. OLD AGE. 

41. Total withdrawal of compulsory savings. 

Whoever is retired at the age of 60, may withdraw the amount entered 
to his credit in the compulsory savings bank. In cases where the retirement 
is postponed— the workman being still capable and the pension small, in 
consequence of his advanced age at the time of entering the service of the 
Company — this withdrawal is also postponed until the time when he leaves 
the service of the Company, unless the Directorate should find that valid 
reasons exist to allow the withdrawal. 

Total withdrawals (27 cases) 1276 florins 42 cents (£ 106). 

42. Retiring pension at the aue of 60. 

The whole of the premiums (7% of the annual wanes) is paid by the 
Company, in such a way that, if they are paid from the 21 st up to the 60 th year, 
the total pension resulting from these 40 life annuities is equal to the amount 
of the fixed salary which the interested party has enjoyed during an average year. 

Each member of the staff receives a policy at the end of every year : 
in case of dismissal the right to the life annuities, for which the premiums 
have been paid, remains intact. 

The life annuities are bought in the "National Life Assurance Co." in 
Rotterdam; the policies are deposited in the factory; the insured persons 
receive pension books, in which the payments and life annuities which they 
represent are noted and initialled by the Directorate. 

it is clear that this institution cannot make its full effect felt until 10 lit. 
when it will have existed 40 years. All those who were of an advanced age 
at the time of entering- the Company's service, will have an insufficient retiring- 
pension; it is almost the same with those who on entering the service, have 
passed the age of 25. These latter are therefore obliged to pay supplementary 
premiums to those paid by the Company; the former when their strength does 
not allow of their working after their 00 th year, receive allocations from the 



26 MATERIAL INTERESTS. 

funds formed by special membership (Vide no. 11) up to a maximum of 10 
florins a week. (Vide no. 33). 

1879 — '<><» : 340 insured pensions, of which the amount will be 10 4.000 
florins {£ 8.666). 

f. DEATH. 

43. Insured capital. 

The premiums (2 % of annual wages) are paid by the Company. 

The sum insured in case of death before the age of 60, is 9 % °f the 
total wages received during the time in which the deceased has been in the 
service of the Company. The amount of the life insurance therefore agrees 
with the sum of the premiums paid, noted in the pension book. (Vide no. 42). 

1879— '99 : 340 insured capitals, of which the amount will be 308.000 
florins (£25.666). 

44. Total repayment of compulsory savings. 

Generally the amount is divided between the widow and the children and 
paid to their account in the voluntary savings bank. The committee of the 
"Widows' Fund" in agreement with the widow, then takes charge of the 
administration of these sums. 

Total repayments 1879— '99 (16 widows) 1618 florins 23 cents (£ 135). 

45. Widows' Fund. 

Administered by 3 members of the permanent staff, elected by their 
comrades, under the presidency of the chief of the section of the "Interests 
of the Staff". 

This is not insurance, it is a charity exercised by the Directorate 
and the staff, within the limits of the contributors' means and with regard 
to the wants and resources of the widows. 

Each one of the directors and members of the staff contributes 1 °/ of 
his salary, premiums and share of profits to the treasury of the Fund; the 
Company adds one half of this total. 

So long and up to the amount that she needs, and whilst neither she 
nor her children are able to provide for their maintainance, each widow receives 
a maximum allowance of 4 florins for herself and 1 florin for each child under 15. 
Maximum for a family 8 florins. 

The administration of the fund tixcs the allowance of each widow in 
private. The latter may appeal to the "Kernel" from the decisions of the 
administrators. 



MATERIAL INTERESTS. 27 

In the interest of the widow, the administration of this Fund, in concert 
with the widow, undertakes the management of her finances. Thus the money 
in the compulsory savings bank is generally transferred to the voluntary 
savings bank. 

On the 1 st January 1900, 23 widows enjoyed allowances representing a. 
total sum of 112 fiorins a week, and allowing them to live, simply it is true, 
but without too much care. 

Total allowances 1886—1899 up to 53.629 florins 52 cents (£ 4.469). 

g. FIRE. 

46. Collective insurance. 

The Dutch workman scarcely ever thinks of insuring his belongings 
against the risk of fire. And yet, this furniture, laboriously acquired, completed, 
during an entire lifetime and . . . burnt in a few hours, sometimes represents 
the whole, and in every case a considerable part, of the possessions of the 
family. 

Insuring the furniture against fire is therefore of the greatest necessity, 
to preserve the family from unforeseen disaster. A collective policy insures 
168 households for a sum total of 163.250 florins. The mean premium is at 
the rate of 1 florin 25 cents per thousand. 

h. UNFORESEEN CIRCUMSTANCES. 

47. Advances on wages. 

. An advance from the premium savings bank is granted, if the applicant 
destines the money for some sound investment, (buying a house, extinction 
of a mortgage, purchase of shares in the Netherlands Yeast and Spirit Co., 
life insurance, etc.). 

In special cases, the members of the staff may obtain an advance from 
the section of the "Interests of the Staff", for example at the beginning of 
the winter, for the purchase of winter provisions. The sum advanced must be 
repaid in 26 weekly instalments. 

The purchasers give a receipt for the articles bought to the vendors ; 
the accounts are paid by the section for the "Interests of the Staff". 

Under special circumstances, submitted to the decision of the head of the 
section for the "Interests of the Staff" advances are granted on conditions 
agreed upon in each particular case. 

Use is often made, perhaps too often, of the facilities for obtaining an 
advance ; nevertheless the fact must not be lost sight of that a considerable 

3 



28 MATERIAL INTERESTS. 

part of the advances may be considered as payment of wages already earned, 
which, in any case, would have to be paid out at the end of the quarter. 
(Vide no. 16). 

The Directorate endeavours to make this anticipated payment in the true 
interest of the family, to prevent them from regulating so to speak, the 
household expenses on regular advances. 

Apart from quite exceptional cases, the advances vary from 5 to 30 florins. 



C. SUPPORT OF THE COMMUNITY. 

a. BUDGETS OF THE INSTITUTIONS. 

48. Fund for common purposes. 

The Common Purpose Fund constitutes the resources of all the institutions. 
It consists of a part of the subsidy of the Company to cover the budget 
ordinarily allotted to the United Committee (Vide no. 102) for the regular 
working of the different institutions. On the other hand it is formed by the 
collective share of the profits voted by the Kernel, further by the gifts of 
the Company made for some special purpose in the interest of the community 
and finally by the voluntary donations of persons interested in the social work 
of the Company. It is from this Fund that the necessary sums for the building 
and installation of the ''Community'' building were taken (Vide no. 75), it is 
this Fund that paid for the installation of the gymnasium, for musical instru- 
ments, and for the other different acquisitions of greater or less importance, 
which are together the collective property of the industrial establishments. 




The dawn of intellectual development. 



III. INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL 
DEVELOPMENT. 



A. TEACHING AND CARE OF CHILDREN. 



a. CHILDREN IN GENERAL. 



4'.). Playground. 




As early as 1879, Mr. Van 

Marken marked out a part of the 

ground adjoining the Yeast Factory 

as a playground for the children 

of the staff. After the creation of 

"Agneta Park" another much larger 

playground was inaugurated close to 

•'The Tent" (Vide no. 74). Here are 

found all sorts of children's games, 

playground. (swings, see-saw, round-abouts, etc), 

and shelters for the mothers who come to watch over the games of their little 

ones. The play ground is also much frequented, during the fine weather, by 

the little pupils of the kindergarten (Vide no. 54). 

50. Surveillance of school attendance. 

The aim of this surveillance, 
which is exercised by the wives 
of the directors assisted by a com- 
mittee of ladies, is to assist parents 
and teachers, so that the school 
attendance may be as regular and 
useful as possible. Since the founda- 
tion of the Yeast Factory (1870) 
this care has been exercised in 
different ways ; first there were . playground. 




30 



INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT. 



meetings with the parents held regularly, where the teachers submitted a 
monthly report on the progress, application and absences from class of the 
children of the staff. Later, when the latter had become too numerous to 
continue the meetings with all the parents, the committee decided to consult 
them in domiciliary visits, whenever these seemed necessary or desirable. 
However some of the teachers, taking their stand on a certain pedagogic 
point of view, raised difficulties, refused to furnish detailed reports about their 
pupils — the standard applied in the various schools differed — and contented 
themselves with indicating the absences from class. 

Nevertheless, a short time ago, the teachers, acting in concert with the 
committee, desired to give more complete information. They did not shrink 
from the inevitable labour, having unanimously recognised the excellent results 
of the committee's care. Thus, henceforth they will take note not only of 
absences from class, but also of late attendances, and if possible of the excuses 
alleged in either case. Besides this, they will take careful note of conduct 
and application, thus, the progress, properly so called, is not at present sub- 
mitted for the judgment of the committee, for the reasons given above. 

Last year 650 children were placed under the care of the committee. 




Visit of English Bakers (no. 52). 
The arrival at the Factory. 



INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT. 



31 



51. Scholars 1 festivals. Prizes. 

All the pupils mentioned 
in the preceding number (50) 
arc invited to a festival every 
year, where all those whoso 
conduct and progress, during 
the past year, have been satis- 
factory, receive a little present 
(book, plaything, needle-case, 
etc.) Those whose application 
and progress have left much 
to be desired, are excluded 
from this festival. ( If late 
years, this festival has always 
taken place in the winter: 
two evenings in succession. 
the great hall of the "Com- 
munity" (Vide no. 75) was 
filled with joyous infantile 
voices, while the prizes were 
distributed, refreshments serv- 
ed and the electric magic- 
lantern exhibited. Latterly it 
has been decided to organise 
festivals alternately in sum- 
mer and winter. 



.-' -'■ ■+-■■* <:'.* ■ >? -«'■ M>.-.y.-fr, - :■'- 






^rifsrlj-Jtrsclj ^ahhcrs-^Hijoolfanas. 

J|ef VtBtaue ball Or 

3iiition.il Jlssociittion of JHasfrr falters .nto Conffr- 
iioners in (jjrcat-^rifatn antt Ixclaiio, 
©uecrocafniie o«i toot oe Urtau u> or 

|lcocrliiitosd;c QjSist- ru j&ptritusfabricft, 

Ob Baorbtnrtil nan Or SttCentflbt i£oniirrtseU Ban Brbrrt Brt liistcllnigrn 
la t|rt btttrno turn brt prreonrrl ber jlfiicrUiibBdjr 9?io»- en SoinlUBfabrleb 
en bee HrbrelaTtOBche 0>Itcrabritb. 

»e SrtJBt^-JifC5tli« Jahfctre-Ptljs uoor bet »rii<ui(iM' 
189 ftW IB lorgrkrab mix 



Hjcrff bcslof ell nan be|tn Brtj» b« 

ills erhtnntiin ban brtounbr ullit en (jrinrijait uorbcrltto.en tor tr uotptn 
ojeOoan tf ben 1*0 - 

Kamro» 6ft 5-«.l»" .a" Be 

JWlional ItoBotUlion of JHaefcr ».ihcV6 ,v Conftdiont 



:iivi£&K-'>'&& :->; ;->: -.-::■: ;-:-: -.■::-; ;-_--; Kg ;os';.>u-:w ; 



Diploma (no. 52.) 



52. Prize foe excellence founded by British bakers. 



At the time of their visit (in 1893) to the Yeast Factory and Agneta 
Park, where they had been invited by the Directorate, 300 members of the 
National Association of Master Bakers and Confectioners 
handed over, at the time of leaving, the sum of £ 30 to the Directorate, 
with the request that they would use it for the benefit of the start'. As a 
permanent souvenir of this "Pilgrimage to Veastland", this sum was devoted 
to an "British Bakers' Scholarship Fund", the interest of which is used every 
year to furnish four prizes: two for boys and two for girls who have been 
most distinguished for application, conduct and progress, amongst all the pupils 
of the schools (schools of sewing, knitting, repetition, etc). One prize is 



32 



TNTELLEC UAL ANT) MORAL DEVELOPMENT. 



reserved for a girl under 13, another for a girl over 13. The other two are 
bestowed upon a factory apprentice and a junior in the office. The prize- 
winners receive in addition a framed diploma, signed by the president and 
secretary of the National Association. These prizes are reckoned a 
high distinction. 

53. Children's library. 

This forms- a special section of the Public Library (no. 67) and is open 
daily from 5.30 to 6.30. The loan of books is free, and is made by a clerk; 
the regular purchase of books is undertaken by the special library committee, 
of which one member is a lady. 

b. CHILDREN UNDER 6. 



54. KlNDEROARTEN (PrOEBEL'S SYSTEM). 

As the kindergarten schools of the town of Delft are too distant to allow 
I the inhabitants of Agneta Park to send 

their children to them, and as house- 
hold cares most frequently prevent the 
mothers from devoting themselves to 
this part of their task, a school on the 
Froebel system has been established in 
the "Community". 

Weekly fees: 10 cents per child, 

5 cents for each additional child from 

the same family. On the 1 st of January 

Kindergarten. 1900 the school was attended by 47 

pupils. The instruction is entrusted to a certificated mistress and two assistants. 

c. BOYS OF 12 TO 18. 




55. School of manual work. 

This school at the same time enables the sons of members of the staff to 
perfect themselves in every kind of manual work, and to develop a taste for 
order and accuracy (the well known Swedish "Slojd" system). 

The management is entrusted to an instructor who has visited the 
celebrated institution at Naiis (Sweden), at the expense of the Company. 



INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT. 



33 



A committee chosen from amongst the members of the staff, and having for its 



president the chief mechanical- 
engineer of the Factory, is en- 
trusted with the surveillance of 
the teaching. On the 1 st January 



1900. there were 68 pupils in 
the school. There is an annual 
exhibition of work in the ''Com- 
munity" building (Vide no. 95). 




Articles made by the pupils in the School of Manual Work. 



d. LITTLE GIRLS OF 6 TO 13. 



•"><;. Knitting school. 

Although this very simple feminine manual work is taught in all the 
schools and the mothers are perfectly capable of assisting their children, the 
large number of pupils (42). living principally in the Park and attending the 
school in "the Community", proves that it supplies a real want. Lessons are 
given four times a week from 5.30 to 7 p. m. Fee : 10 cents a week. 

e. YOIXG GIRLS FROM 13 TO 16. 



5/. Sewing school. 

Lessons are given four days a week from 2 to -1 o'clock, by an experienced 
teacher. On the 1 st January 1900 ten young persons were on the books. 



34 



INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT. 



Girls of this age are mostly general servants in middle-class houses where 
for a wage of a few pence, and sometimes, but not always their board, their 
employers profit by and often abuse their young strength, scarcely allowing 
them even the leisure to go out for an hour or two with a view to teaching 
themselves. 

f. G-1RLS OF OYER 16.— MOTHERS OF FAMILIES. 

58. Sewing, mending and cutting-out classes. 

The same course as that in no. 57 ; but the pupils are a little older and 
the lessons cover more ground, according to the progress of the pupils. The 
attendance is very variable, and depends generally on the good-will of their 
mistresses. 




Sewing school. 



A separate course is designed for mothers of families, who do not 
sufficiently understand that a good needlewoman, particularly at mending, is a 
veritable treasure in a workman's household. 



59. Domestic economy class. 

Cookery and domestic economy classes have been held from time to time 
with moderate success. Although these classes are of the greatest importance 



INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT. 35 

to the great majority of the mothers of working families, it annoys them that 
their failings in this direction should be recognised by each other. These 
failings are however very excusable, as domestic instruction forms no part 
of the programme of primary schools. Most often they do not recognise their 
incapacity at all. which is much worse. 



B. APPRENTICESHIP. 

a. APPRENTICES IX GENERAL. 

The system of apprenticeship has undergone many changes in the course 
of years. 

In 1882 several of the workmen who had been engaged from the formation 
of the Yeast Factory in 1870, had attained an age at which the question of 
the future of their sons, leaving school one after another, began to occupy 
their thoughts. Mr. Van Marken published at that time a series of articles 
in the "Factory Messenger", entitled "Our boys", in which he 
thoroughly dealt with this burning question, which is so important to every 
father of a family. He added thereto Regulations for the education 
of apprentices, "to give an opportunity to members of the staff of having 
their 13 year old sons, who left the primary school with a certificate of good 
conduct and satisfactory progress, admitted to the factory as apprentices. 
The aim of this measure would be : 

"1 st to give to the boys the necessary theoretical and practical instruction 
to make them capable workmen and good citizens; 2 nd to prepare skillful, 
intelligent and faithful workmen for the service of the Company." — The 
apprentices were to be "put under the charge and protection of the entire 
staff, and confided to the special control of a workman or clerk under the 
general direction of the head of the section for the "Interests of the Staff". 

It was expressly stipulated that "as far as the work exacted from 
apprentices is concerned, the interest of their instruction shall be the first 
consideration and not the direct interests of the Company at the moment." 

The morning, from 7 to 9 o'clock, was to be devoted to the repetition 
and continuation of primary instruction. The time from i) till noon, and from 
2 to 6 in the afternoon was to be spent in the factory. Dining the first year 
each pupil would pass through all the different workshops, in order to have 



36 



INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT. 



a superficial acquaintance with the m ami facta re and the different constructive 
works. Alter this first year, by agreement Avith their parents they would have 
the choice between apprenticeship to the manufacture (of yeast and spirit) or 
apprenticeship to a craft (carpenter, mason, smith, etc.). 

The apprentices would have no salary, to which they have no right, but 
their parents would enjoy an allowance rising with their age from 50 cents 
to 5 florins, of which 10% would be allotted to the boys as pocket money. 

After the age of 17 the apprenticeship would end. After examination 
they would receive a diploma and would be obliged to leave the service of 




Repetitii 



the factory and would be assisted to obtain a situation elsewhere. After two 
years work to the satisfaction of their master or successive masters, they 
would have preference for any vacancies in the Company's service. 



Despite the good intentions which directed this organisation, it has never 
borne the wished for fruit, evidently from lack of teaching talent and also 
from an unfortunate want of good-will on the part of the workmen. "What 
business of mine is this rascal who only worries me at my work?" And 
the apprentices without learning anything were scarcely better satisfied, 



INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT. 37 

abandoned mostly to their own devices, they became stupid or else amused 
themselves singly or in groups by getting into mischief. 

in short the system did not succeed. In spite of this disillusionment the 
principle of apprenticeship has not been abolished, but the application of it 
has been modified many times. The ideal of a working school for "the 
sons of our comrades", for "our children of the community", the motto "the 
interests of our apprentices before all, and the interests of the factory will 
afterwards come of themselves", all that has had to be given up. 

60. Repetition classes. 

We will suppress the successive stages, through which apprenticeship has 
passed in the course of year's. The existing organisation may be summed up 
as follows : The number of apprentices is limited according to the needs of 
the work. We can however state that boys of this age are never sacrificed 
in our factories in order to have cheap labour. There are only artisans' 
assistants, who, as is generally the case everywhere, must learn the trade by 
helping. Their master-workmen have special charge to instruct them as far 
as is possible and to make regular reports on their progress. They are obliged 
to attend the excellent "Evening school" established at Delft, where all the 
necessary theoretical instruction is given to young workpeople and where their 
assiduity and progress are regularly controlled. The Company pays the fee 
(10 florins a head) and supplies the pupils with everything necessary for 
their studies. 

For their physical and hygienic benefit they are obliged to attend the 
gymnastic lessons (Vide no. (31) at the Community gymnasium (Vide no. 75). 

The apprenticeship for young clerks gives much more satisfactory results. 
(Vide nos. 64—66). 

For the rest, neither women nor children are employed, on principle, in 
the works directed by Mr. Van Marken. Only in the packing warehouse half 
a score boys of from 13 to 16 are employed to wrap the small parcels of yeast 
in paper, a very light job which requires small and supple hands. At first 
these boys were included in the apprenticeship system, but this had to be 
given up on account of the great changes in this small staff: generally they 
only stay a few months or even weeks; at the time of entry even they are 
advised to look for more intellectual work as soon as possible, and they are 
assisted to find an employer with whom they may learn some solid craft. It 
is the same in the Glue Factory with the boys who put the stabs of glue 
on the dryers. 



38 intellectual and moral development. 

61. Gymnastic class. 

Attendance at this class (once a week) is obligatory for young clerks 
whose daily occupation is not favourable to physical development, which is 
even more serious because in many cases an office career is chosen because 
one's physique does not allow him to be exposed to the fatigue of a craft. 
This compulsory attendance is not at first very agreeable to the young people; 
in following the class however they find in it an ever-growing pleasure and 
the "Sparta" club (Vide no. SO) reckons its supporters as much from the staff 
of the offices as from that of the factory. 

62. Students' excursions. 

Visits are paid to the neighbouring ports (Rotterdam ) ; to factories, 
historical monuments etc. The expenses are borne partially by the pupils who 
put aside a small subscription every week. This personal sacrifice increases 
the pleasure given by these exclusions. 

b. APPRENTICES IX THE WORKSHOPS. 

63. Professional course. 

It is often said that a constructive or rather a repairing workshop in 
a factor\ is a school less favourable to the professional development of the 
young workman than to that of the small master. The truth is that a very 
restricted number of apprentices may learn the craft as well or even better 
in the factory workshop; first rate workmen who have issued from among the 
Company's apprentices, prove this. One or two expressly chosen workmen are 
entrusted with the practical instruction under the direction of the head of 
the workshop and of the special committee for apprenticeship. 

c. YOUNG CLERKS. 

64. Grammar and correspondence classes (4 languages). 

The course embraces 4 modern languages: French, English, German 
and Dutch. 

The grammar classes are obligatory. 

The correspondence classes begin at the age of IS, after the apprentice 
has become an assistant-clerk! Attendance is optional hut there are very iew 
pupils who do not regularly attend several courses. 



INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT. 39 



65. Book-keeping class. 



For assistant clerks above 18. Attendance optional as in the correspon- 
dence class. The pupils often go in for the examinations of some national 
association of clerks, whose diplomas arc much thought of and they are 
almost invariably successful. 

66. Class in commercial law. 

Attendance optional as in nos. 64 and 65. 

Pupils in these classes pay an annual fee from 7 i / 2 fl. per course; up to 
a maximum of 20 florins per year. The remaining expenses of these classes 
(salaries of teachers) are deducted from the budget of the "Committee for 
Intellectual Interests'' (Vide no. 102). In exceptional cases the amount of the 
fee is reduced (fathers of families). 

A total of 33 persons were entered for different courses on the 
1st January 1900. 



C. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT FOR ADULTS. 

a. READING. 

(>7. Public library. 

In 1878 a library had already been founded for the use of the staff of 
the Yeast Factory. Twice a week Mrs. Van Marken distributed books, and 
found means to direct the reading of the members, and more particularly of 
the children, without their perceiving it. 

At the present time, this library, comprising' 2.500 volumes, is established 
in one of the rooms of the "Community". The number of volumes issued to 
borrowers is on an average over 5000 a year. Adults ask mostly for historical 
novels, the young people prefer hunting and travelling adventures. 

68. Van Marken library. 

This library has been open to the members of the staff and private 
borrowers since lS'.i-t. It is the private property of Mr. Van Marken and 
comprises 3.000 vols. Dutch and foreign literature, history, geography, art 



40 



INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT. 



and education, .jurisprudence, and above all social and political economy. 
Books applied for about 200 per annum. 

69. Reading room. 

The reading room, situated in the •'Community", where at first some 
hundred newspapers — daily and weekly — and reviews were placed, did not 




Reading room. 



attract the expected number of readers. On the one hand this was caused by 
ignorance and indifference; on the other it is indisputable that a large number 
of workmen prefer to read at home the newspaper to which they subscribe; 
others again, after a day's work of 10 hours, are little disposed to yield 
themselves to any reading calling for sustained attention. 



intellectual and moral development. 41 

70. Circulating portfolios of periodical publications. 

As the workmen did not come to the reading room of the "Community", 
in 1896 it was decided to make them one at home. The reviews and weekly 
papers— generally speaking all except the daily papers — are divided into several 
sets; three or four magazines are enclosed in a portfolio, and are taken home 
for 3 or 4 days. Workmen can become subscribers by payment of 5 cents a 
month, those below the rank of clerk 10 cents, clerks and higher officials 
25 cents a month. 

The small desire to visit the reading room should not be attributed to a 
lack of love for reading: the frequent use winch is made of the library 
should suffice to dissipate this idea. These circulating libraries supply a new 
proof to the contrary: in a very short time over one hundred applications to 
subscribe were received. This number, it is true, declined later, but mainly 
because membership of the reading society "Co-operation" which will be 
mentioned below, has been facilitated; on the 1 st January 1900 the subscribers 
still totalled 57. 

The reviews of a scientific kind are circulated gratuitously, also in 
portfolios, among the clerks and higher officials who are interested in them 
by reason of their work, or who express a wish for them. 

They are divided into three classes : 1 st technical, 2 nd commercial, 
3 rd social. 

The circulating reading society •'Co-operation" has a more general character. 
Founded by a few of the higher officials, with a view to reading in common 
the best national and foreign reviews and illustrated periodicals, it has grown 
considerably, so that now it counts 35 readers, divided into two classes : 

A. (22 readers) subscription 10 florins annually. 

B. (13 „ ) „ 4 „ „ 

The only difference is that the reviews and periodicals are circulated 
first in class A, afterwards in E. 

b. MEETINGS. 

71. Conferences. 

These conferences are organised in the reading room of the "Community" 
by the "Committee for scientific conferences" when opportunity offers, and 
above all in proportion as we find, within the circle of the staff and outside 
it, capable persons who are willing to hold a conference. 

4 



42 INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT. 

Last winter among others, a well known French savant, M. Chailley 
Bert, gave a much applauded lecture on the Transvaal to a numerous audience. 
M. l'abbe Daens, the Belgian Christian-socialist, gave a talk on universal 
suffrage. 

With few exceptions the interest taken in these lectures leaves much 
to be desired. 




^^ 



Athletic clubs. 



IV. SPIRIT OF COMRADESHIP AND 
COMMUNITY. 



When man is no longer troubled as to his daily bread, when in addition 
lie knows that he is insured against all the dangers, foreseen or unforeseen, 
to which human life is exposed, when his material wants are no longer the 
sole preoccupation of his mind, then lie has arrived at that degree of well- 
being in winch the adornment of life becomes a need of a new kind. 

Intellectual development and recreation have entered into Ins existence. 

The social man is horn in him. lie lives no longer to himself alone. 
He seeks to learn, to discuss the problems of the day. to amuse himself 
witli Ins comrades. He feels himself a member of the community, and desires 
to fill his position there, as much for the enjoyment of that winch it can give 
him, for the use of his rights, as for the accomplishment of his duties, for 
the personal payment he makes in return. 

At the end of the preceding chapter we have just shown what has been 
done to respond to the intellectual needs of the adults. The present chapter 
gives a glance at the means, which are at the disposition of the staff for 
recreation, for meeting in good fellowship, for the cultivation of body and 
mind together, of artistic taste and the healthful use of muscular strength. 



A. PLACES OF RECREATION. 

72. "Agneta Park". 

The idea of living as a family in the midst of their employees, in a spot 
which would not. at the first glance, bear anv resemblance to the general 



44 



SPIRIT OF COMRADESHIP AND COMMUNITY. 



type "\' the ••workmen's city", had for many long years haunted the mind 
and heart of Mr. and Mrs. Van Marken. 

In 1879 they had already bought a meadow which was separated from 
the Yeast Factory by the railway line only. Different circumstances however 
delayed the execution of the project which they had conceived on the plans 
of the celebrated architect-gardener Zocher of Harlem. 

At last in 1882 the work was commenced, and these labours were 
inaugurated by a ceremony which did not lack the poetic element. On the 
7 th April Mr. and Mrs. Van Marken celebrated, according to the Dutch 
custom, their "copper wedding". At the end of a repast on the morrow, at 
which the nearest kin were met, the guests were invited to betake themselves 
to the meadow aforesaid, and to sign in duplicate a document which we 
re-produce here. Here is the translation of the text : 




Act "l foundation of Agneta Park 

(shewing the first trees planted by the 

Van Marken family). 



In memory of the 7th April 1882, 
the day of the copper wedding of 

Jacob Comelis van Marken 

and 

Agneta Wilhelniina Johanna Matthes 

who hope to realise upon this meadow 
a favourite idea and thus to complete 
their life task, the first nineteen trees 
of the 

AGNETA PARK 
have been planted here by 



(here follow the signatures: in the middle that of 
the aged father, at the side those of the son (the 
director) and of two grandsons all bearing the same 
name J. C. van Marken ; then all around the signa- 
tures of Mrs. Van Marken, and sixteen brothers, 
brothers-in-law, sisters and sisters-in-law) 



by whom a document, identical with 
the present one, has been prepared and 
placed in the earth this 8th April 1882. 



To-day those 19 trees have become a little wood. The oak rises in the 
middle and mingles its robust branches with those of the others, but the 




AGNETA PARK 
founded by Mr. and Mrs. Van Marken in 1882- 



SPIRIT OF COMRADESHIP AND COMMUNITY. 45 

revered old man who planted it sleeps since 1886 otherwhere, beneath the 
foliage of the cemetery at Amsterdam, where he had preached the Gospel 
and love of one's neighbour for more than 30 years. The social work of his 
son. which he inspired, lay very near his heart. His lofty spirit still hovers 
nver Agneta Park, where Mi', and Mrs. Van Marken have had the rare 
happiness of seeing their ideal realised, where for 1(5 years they have dwelt 
in the most cordial relation with the most devoted members of the workers' 
••family', where they continue to complete and hope to finish their life work. 

Agneta Park covers an area of 4 hectares (nearly 10 acres), is planted 
with full grown trees and embellished with lawns and flower beds. The soil 
necessary to raise these "polder" tracts has provided ornamental lakes which 
have been dug' out and which give a charming aspect to the entire vicinity. 

The Park, although (with the exception of the part built upon) the private 
property of Mr. and Mrs. Van Marken, is open to the public and forms the 
most delightful and most frequented promenade in Delft. 

73. "The Villa". 

This "historic" building, of modest air, with its little garden, was from 
1879 to 1883 the one place of meeting and recreation, where old and young- 
encountered each other in the evening, after the day's task, or met on Sunday 
in company with their wives and children. Although first "the Tent" and 
afterwards "the Community", with their larger space, have replaced it advan- 
tageously, it still renders good service as a billiard-room, or as a meeting- 
place for intimate comrades. It has a door communicating- with the refectory. 

74. "The Tent". Summer-Casino. 

lii a secluded corner of the Park, a wooden pavilion, surrounded by a 
eharming verandah, decked with flowers, is to be found. It issues from a 
thicket of foliage, and gives hospitality to the mothers, who armed with needle- 
work, come to watch over their children's games in the gymnasium, in the 
playground around. This building served for other purposes at first, and 
amongst others housed the schools, which later found better shelter under the 
broader wings of "the Community", but it always remains a spot chosen as a 
summer club, and the performances of the various musical societies, which are 
regularly held, make it a place of great attraction. 

A stage, and a bar, from which spirituous liquors only are excluded, and 
whose moderate prices are at the command of every purse, are to be found there. 



x; 



SPIRIT OF COMRADESHIP AND COMMUNITY. 



In order that the greatest possible number of persons may share the 
pleasures of this inclosure, as well as to induce tbem to participate in the 
intellectual recreations, subscription tickets giving admission to "the Tent' and its 
pleasure garden as well as to "the Community" and the greater part of the 
meetings, concerts etc., which are organised in these two places, are put at the 
disposal of the inhabitants of Delft, who do not form part of the staff of 'the 
factories, at the rate of 2 x j 2 florins annually, for an entire family. 




English visitors in front of "the Tent". 



The use made of these is somewhat restricted, seeing the liberality with 
which permission to enter is given. 



To. "The Community". 

This fine solid building, of which the cost (exclusive of the ground) was 
20.000 florins, contains 2 large and 6 small rooms for meetings and classes. 

The rooms are arranged as follows : 

Ground floor: two large rooms (which can be thrown into one) used as 
reading room and gymnasium ; four small rooms adjoining used for repetition 
and sewing classes, kindergarten and refreshment room. The whole of the six 
rooms on the ground floor thrown into one make a great festival hall holding 
a thousand people. First floor: two rooms, one of which is used as a library 



\ 




Wedding fete of Mr. Waller. 



SPIRIT OF COMRADESHIP AND COMMUNITY. 



47 



and the other for meetings of the three Chambers of the Kernel and of the 
Committees or various clubs. 

"The Community 11 is gratuitously at the disposal of the staff and of the 
clubs formed in their midst. 

The foundation of this truly splendid edifice was made possible by the 
assistance not only of the industrial Companies of Hof van Delft, of their 




"The Community". 



directors and of their staff, but also of private persons throughout the country 
and even from foreign parts, sympathizers in our social work, and first of 
their Majesties the Queens Wilhelmtna and Emma who honoured Agneta Park 
with their visit on 20 th April 1892. 



B. FETES, MEETINGS, CLUBS. 

a. FETES. 



76. Festival day of the Community. 

Since the inauguration of the "temple" of "the Community" on the 30 th 
July 1892, this date, which is also the birthday of Mr. Van Marken, is kept 
every year as the "Festival of the Community" by the industrial Companies. 

The festival is organised by a committee of the staff, whose executive is 
permanent from one year to another. It co-opts a certain number of members. 



IS SPIRIT OF COMRADESHIP AND COMMUNITY. 

At an early hoar vocal and instrumental music is heard, the children's 
cries of joy mingle with their games and fill the park with mirthful sound: 
flags fly from every house, crowds are everywhere; singing, dancing, archery 
and shooting take place in the flowery Park, which is illuminated in fairy 
fashion as evening draws near. At the end fireworks as a wind-up. The 
whole staff takes part, men, women and children. It is a day of fraternis- 
i n g and general e n j o y m e n t. 

What constitutes, however, the most solemn moment of the festival, is the 
distribution of the crosses of service (Vide n°. 106) to those who have gained 
them during the course of the year. The decorations are distributed by the 
director-founder, and are accompanied by a special word to each recipient, in 
the presence of all their comrades gathered together in the great hall of the 
Community. Lt is a serious and touching note in the gaiety of the great day, 
which is always received with general sympathy. 

b. MUSICAL SOCIETIES. 

77. Band. 

It is a score of years ago since a competent musician, ex-conductor of a 
military corps, was engaged by the Directorate to create a band, composed 
only of workmen possessing good will and a love of music. The difficulties to 
be overcome at the beginning were great, but love of the art, combined with 
great patience, succeeded in overcoming all obstacles and in finally constituting 
a band of real value, which is the soul of all the festivals and meetings of 
the staff. 

In competition with other bodies of the same kind, it has already carried 
off, on several occasions, numerous prizes, it is composed exclusively of mem- 
bers of the permanent staff; no stranger is admitted unless under very excep- 
tional circumstances. It numbers already more than 30 members, and continues 
the training of young pupils. 

The present conductor, son of the founder, who died last year, is clerk- 
storekeeper at the Oil Factory. He is not behind his regretted father, either 
in zeal or love for music. 

78. Orchestra. 

The conductor of the band has succeeded in finding amongst the exe- 
cutants, a certain number of the most gifted persons with whom he has formed 
a string-band, with the aim of giving, in the winter, concerts with the assistance 
of other amateurs and invited soloists, chosen from amongst the families or 



In Agneta Park. 




The Bakers' Fountain. 
The Band. The grocery Store. 

The house "Rest Rusts" (residence of Mr. and Mrs. VanjMarken). 



SPIRIT OF COMRADESHIP AND COMMUNITY. 49 

friends of the staff, or even amongst professional artistes who often volunteer 
of their own initiative to thus give a proof of their sympathy with our efforts. 
It is quite natural that, although remarkable progress lias been made, it is 
not so rapid as in a professional orchestra. 

79. Choral Society. 

The formation of a choral society for men, was a renewal of an earlier 
effort to form a singing society for men and women, an effort winch succeeded 
for a time but failed later. Thanks to an extraordinary zeal, particularly of 
the office staff, the society is in a prosperous state (30 members). 

The direction is entrusted to a musician in Delft, and the concerts show 
that good methods are steadily gained and that the voices are getting more flexible. 

At the last national contest of workmen's choral societies (May 1900). 
they carried off the 2 nd prize. 

What good fortune! Several workmen from amongst the staff, proud of the 
success of their comrades, have just opened a subscription for the purpose of 
presenting the choral society with a banner. The 200 signatures which they 
obtained in eight days amply shew the sympathy felt in our midst for singing 
and especially for this society. 



c. ATHLETIC CLUBS. 

80. "Sparta". Gymnastics and fencing (young men). 

There has always been a large number of amateur gymnasts among the 
members of the staff, especially among those from 18 to 23 years of age ; 
and opportunities for practice became more frequent, when, in 1892, the Com- 
munity put at their disposal its admirably equipped gymnasium. 

The gymnastic and fencing club "Sparta", founded in 1886, numbers 33 
active members. Drill takes place three times a week, under the direction of 
an excellent professor of gymnastics, who is paid by the budget of the "United 
Committee" (Vide no. 102). Ordinarily the club gives a grand display once a 
year, followed by a ball. Under the name of "public lessons", several less 
important displays are held, in winter — and then they do not fail to end the 
"lesson" by a little dance — as well as in summer, and notably on "Commu- 
nity-day" ; on that day the members compete for prizes which the Directorate 
places at the disposal of the society. 

5 



50 



SPIRIT OF COMRADESHIP AND COMMUNITY. 



Iii national competitions with sister clubs, "Sparta' 1 lias carried off numer- 
ous piizes. 

On Saturday evenings, the 12 to 18 year old sons of the members of the 
staff may exercise gratuitously in gymnastics, under the lead of the same 
professor, in the gymnasium of the Community. These lessons are obligatory 
fur the apprentices in the offices of the factories. 

SI. "< )lympia". Gymnastics (young women). 

The increasing love of these physical exercises in the families of the staff 
gave rise, in 1898, to the formation of a ladies' gymnastic society "Olympia", 
numbering at present 15 active members and which, at the last festival of 
"Sparta" lent its assistance. As regards instruction and the use of the gym- 
nasium it enjoys the same privileges as "Sparta 1 '. A junior club is attended 
by 22 girls of 12 — 15. 




Rowing on the lake in Agneta Park. 



82. Boatino; Skating. 

The ponds in Agneta Park offer an excellent opportunity for giving oneself 
up to the passion for skating, which is a national recreation. The slides are 
also open free to the inhabitants of the town, except when in special cases 
a contest is held open only to members of the staff. 

In summer boats can be hired; on Sundays particularly great numbers 
indulge in this nautical sport. 



SPIRIT OF COMRADESHIP AND COMMUNITY. 



51 



83. Skittle club. 

The skittle club meets in summer one evening a week in the open air 
in the park, where the skittle alley is to be found. On "Community-day", 
there is generally a contest in which all the members of the staff may 
take part. 

84. Billiard club. 

At the Villa there are two billiard tables which appear to be sufficient 
for the requirements. The regular players have formed a club, which in 
winter meets once a week and habitually ends the season by a contest among 
the members. 




Skating on the lake in Agneta Park. 



85. Archery club. 

in the park a perch and a vault for the use of the archers are to be 
found. This kind of sport is only followed in certain countries of the Nether- 
lands. The shooting- club "Straight to the Mark" numbers 23 members. 



52 



SPIRIT OF COMRADESHIP AND COMMUNITY. 



86. Rifle shooting club. 

A new shooting club has just been founded and numbers from its commen- 
cement more than 100 members. In winter they practice in the Community 
(flobert carbine); the club having been admitted by Royal letters in summer 
they use ammunition rifles, which, with the cartridges, are furnished by the 
minister of war; practise takes place at the shooting range of Delft. 




Milliard Room at the "Vi 



87. Tourist club. 



This is a club with a very strict ballot which has for its object the taking 
of a 4 days' tour during the holidays on full pay (Vide no. 14). The actual 
number of members is twelve; they pay a subscription of 10 cents a week 
to cover the expenses of railway and lodging; the other expenses are paid 
individually. The perfect good fellowship in these little journeys, in which 



SPIRIT OF COMRADESHIP AND COMMUNITY. 53 

chiefs of the sections as well as clerks, overseers, foremen and workmen take 
part, is one of the most remarkable manifestations of the ties which are 
formed among' the staff. 

d. MEETINGS. 

88. Meetings for promotion of co-operation. 

The director of the "Collective Property" Limited Company, Dr. Eringaard, 
has organised conferences of a homely character to which all those who live 
in the houses in Agneta Park and who make their purchases at the stores of 
this Company are invited. The women enjoy a cup of cocoa, the men a glass 
of beer, and while discussing the interests of each member and of the whole 
•'Company", the directorate spreads the principles of co-operation, self-help 
and altruism. 

89. Magic lantern. Lantern lectures. 

In the circle of our establishments, these lectures are generally only 
considered as a pastime destined in the first place to amuse the young people 
and the children. Nevertheless, a society, founded expressly to promote this 
kind of lecture, has made its influence felt for some years in the Netherlands. 
This progress is admitted and it is recognised that, from time to time, adults 
do not disdain to attend lectures of a more serious character. 

The Community offers an excellent opportunity for giving lectures of this 
class. The superb magic lantern lighted by electricity allows us to rival the 
best view apparatus. Consequently, it has been used more than once for 
lectures in clubs foreign to the industries of Hof van Delft. 

In summer the views in the open air in front of Mr. Van Marken's 
villa generally attract a crowd of people. 

Mr. Van Marken's very varied collection numbers more than 2500 slides. 
There is among others a beautiful collection of views in Agneta Park and 
with reference to our social organisation, copies of which are often asked for 
abroad by societies and persons interested in the social work of Delft. 

90. Concerts. 

From what has been said in numbers 77 — 79 music is extremely popular 
among the staff. The concerts are generally given before a well filled hall. 
Outside the concerts of the musical societies •'extraordinary concerts" are 
given once or twice a season with the greatest kindness by amateurs of the 



54 SPIRIT OF COMRADESHIP AND COMMUNITY. 

town of Delft or others. These concerts are of a high artistic value and are 
much appreciated. 

The summer concerts by the band in Agneta Park are always attended 
by an enormous crowd. 

91. Theatre. Elocution. 

The Directorate is of opinion that the art of acting, having for its aim 
the cultivation and ennobling of the human mind, demands a talent to which 
amateurs cannot attain. It has therefore never encouraged the attempts which 
have been made from time to time, to form among the staff a troupe of 
amateur actors. The halls of the Community and of the Tent are, however, 
sometimes placed at the disposal of dilettanti, for the purpose of representations, 
which are, without exception, followed with eagerness by a great part of 
the staff. 

A special committee organises evenings where comic and serious monologues 
are recited. Sometimes the best members of the national theatre lend their 
kind assistance. These meetings, which from the artistic point of view, are 
very superior to the dramatic evenings, also attract great numbers. 

92. Balls. 

At all times the staff has liked dancing; from the first years of the 
Yeast Factory, the homely meetings always closed with a little dance. Seeing 
the restricted numbers of the members, a few quick hands sufficed to range 
the tables and chairs against the walls. At the present time, it is still the 
custom to end the gymnastic festivals by a few dances. Besides evening 
dances are arranged, which attract a very variable number of amateurs. 

Whenever a sufficient number of children present themselves, a special 
committee has dancing lessons given by a member of the staff, who gratuitously 
teaches this art according to the rules. The last classes were held during the 
winters of 1893— 1894, and of 1897—1898. 



e . E X H IB LT IONS. COM 1 >ET 1 T IONS. 

9:5. Flower, uarden-produce and allotment shows. 

The society "Floralia" which supplies cuttings at cost-price (5 cents 
each) has for its aim the encouragement of the taste for cultivating flowers 
and house adornment with them. Toward the end of the summer season an 



SPIRIT OF COMRADESHIP AND COMMUNITY. 55 

exhibition of plants thus cultivated is held; prizes are awarded to those 
who send the finest collections. 

For several years past, about the same time, a committee inspects the 
little gardens in front of and behind the houses in Agneta Park whose 
inhabitants have entered themselves for the competition. A few prizes are 
awarded for the best arranged and best kept gardens. 

It is the same with the allotments. 

04. Athletic sports. 

Athletic sports of every kind are held on "Community-day" (Vide 
no. 76); they are open to all the members of the staff". The prizes are 
offered by the Directorate. Each of the athletic clubs has in addition its own 
competition, the prizes for which are bought out of the funds of the societies. 

95. Exhibition of manual work. 

At the end of the course the director of the school of manual work 
ordinarily organizes an exhibition of articles made by the pupils. As a proof 
of the interest taken we may mention the fact that sometimes old pupils 
exhibit, not for competition, beautiful specimens of work executed in their 
leisure hours. 

96. Permanent industrial and social exhibition. 

Since 18<»s the "Pavilion" has been a new attraction in Agneta Park. At 
the International Exhibition at Antwerp (1894) and at that at Amsterdam 
(1895) the juries awarded diplomas of honour to this Pavilion, which contained 
a collection of goods forwarded from the various establishments of which 
Mr. Van Marken is co-director. 

Xow one may see assembled there samples of the prime materials and of 
the products of all the establishments afore-said and a large collection of 
models, drawings, photographs, documents etc., relating to the social organi- 
sation. Thus this Pavilion offers to visitors a general but very detailed glance 
at the character of the various establishments, and it contributes greatly to 
facilitate the explanation of their work. From this point of view this permanent 
exhibition is much appreciated, not only by strangers who visit Agneta Park 
in great number throughout the year, but also by the staff and the population 
of Delft. 



.")(» SPIRIT OF COMRADESHIP AND COMMUNITY. 

C. FAMILY RECREATION. 

a. FETE DAYS. FAMILY GATHERINGS, SICKNESS. 

V)7. Games and toys at the disposal of families. 

The workman's family is generally unprovided with a collection of family 
games and other pastimes, the want of which is especially felt on the occasion 
of fete days, sickness etc. The collection, which is under the charge of the 
section of the "Interests of the Staff" is designed to till this gap: use is but 
rarely made of it. 










' ■> ] 



JfeS£t£kL: 



& 






N'EDFJKL\NI)vSCHE GIST-EN SPIrItuSMBRJEK 
i XKDKKIANDSCHK OLIKFABRIKK 









\ \ 



\ 







■y cmmiwic txwr<3?M$panian<i: 



Oror0t£*offtlufieS?clanacR: 









■' 



Act of inauguration of "the Community" signed by the Difectorate of the Yeast and Oil Factories, 
by the Presidents and Secretaries of the "Kernel" and by the "United Committee". 



V. SOCIAL UNDERSTANDING AND 
AGREEMENT. 



A. SOCIAL ORGANISATIONS. 

a. DIRECTORIAL ORGANISATIONS. 

98. Section "Interests of the Staff". 

At the commencement Mr. and Mrs. Van Marken themselves looked 
after the social interests of the staff. Nevertheless, at the end of a few 
years they felt more and more that it was necessary to call in assistance, all 
the more because the care to be given to the children of the staff, the 
creation of savings banks and the organisation of a pension scheme demanded 
a special organisation. In this way was born the section of the ''Interests of 
the Staff" which became without delay as important as the industrial, com- 
mercial and administrative sections of the ever-growing" business. 

From the nature of his duties and from his own personality the head of 
this section, Mr. Knuttel, who is assisted by three subordinate clerks (one a 
woman) is regarded by every member of the staff — superiors and subordinates, 
old and young - — as a faithful counsellor, almost as a paternal friend. It is to 
him that they can open their hearts and reveal all their difficulties, equally 
in their family life as in the social life of the factory. 

99. Social Secretariat. 

Besides the section the "Interests of the Staff" the continuous codification 
of the regulations concerning the institutions for the benefit of the staff made 
the want felt of another kind of work: that of completing and modifying in 
proportion to the needs those statutes and regulations, and of making reports 
on and other views of the social institutions. In this way the post of "Secretary 



58 SOCIAL UNDERSTANDING AND AGREEMENT. 

of Social Interests'' was created, of which post Dr. Tjeenk Willink is the holder, 
whose functions and his relations to the aforesaid "Interests of the Staff" 
have been described by Mr. Van Marken in the "Factory Messenger" 
(Vide no. 100) of the 13 th March 1894 in the following way: 

"Like the machinery of the factory this mechanism of the institutions 
requires an assiduous and attentive oversight. When, on the 20 th April 1870 
we began to make yeast, they said the factory was completed; but the work- 
ing showed gaps every day ; our more and more refined products and the 
progress of technical science obliged us every moment to complete, to extend, 
to perfect the existing establishments. 

"For 25 years skillful engineers have employed all their intelligence, 
laborious workmen have spent incredible strength, to meet the ever-growing 
demands and the exigencies of the business, and all this notwithstanding we 
have not arrived at a point where we can consider these as superfluous elements. 

"At the same time the widening of our sphere, the development of ideas 
on the situation of the staff, the mutual rights and duties of capital and labour 
in our establishments have revealed new gaps, created new wants at every 
moment. The examination and satisfaction of these wants have not exacted less 
effort, less mental faculty than the technical and commercial side of our 
business. And it is vain to attempt in the social organisation as in the 
installation of the factory a complete mechanism without the fear of serious 
disturbances; how many projects still in the state of preparation; how many 
unexecuted plans, how many works to be retouched and which have ac- 
cumulated in the workshops of the social engineer ! 

"The head of the section the "Interests of the Staff" and his co-workers the 
United Committee (Vide no. 102) and its numerous sub-committees are already 
overwhelmed with the cares of the regular routine of business as it is; they 
are crushed beneath the duty of carrying out the measures and regulations and 
of making the patronal institutions of such diverse character fulfil their aim. 
But in the accomplishment of this task some are hindered by imperfections 
in the machinery ; others do not sufficiently know the institutions confided to 
their charge, do not understand how they work and do not trouble themselves 
sufficiently about them. 

"It is the secretariat which must meet the criticisms and grievances of 
the former; the secretary of "Social Interests" must endeavour to fill up the 
gaps and amend the defects which experience has brought to light in our 
organisation. As for the latter it is the head of the section "Interests of the 
Staff" who must stimulate their zeal and widen their knowledge. 

"It is at times difficult to draw clearly the line of demarcation between 
the sphere of activity of the head of the section and that of the secretary; 



SOCIAL UNDERSTANDING AND AGREEMENT. 



59 



the latter, the social engineer; the former the man entrusted with the 
execution : as in the factory the mechanical engineer beside the head of the 
manufacture." 

100. "The Factory Messenger". 



Since 1882 this little paper 
appears every Saturday under 
the editorship of Mr. Van 
Marken who of late years, has 
been assisted by a committee 
of permanent co-workers. 

It generally contains : 

A leading a r t i e 1 e 
treating of some question of 
the day in the social life of 
the factories. 

N e w s. Nominations, pro- 
motions, dismissals of members 
of the staff; accounts of the 
different institutions, notices of 
the meeting of the Kernel or the 
clubs, announcements of concerts 
and meetings, summary of sales 
in the co-operative stores etc. 

[ n a n d about the 
factories. Various items ; 
accounts of the meetings ; ana- 
lysis of the lectures; criticisms 
of concerts; in general news 
of all interesting facts, attain- 
ments of members of the staff 
and of everything at all re- 
markable which has occurred 
in the domain of the factories, 
in the social life of the staff, in 
the bosom of the community. 

Articles and news re- 
ceived from the "Public" that 
is to say from members of the 



1894. 



Dertiende Jaargang. 



No. 11. 



DE FABRIEKSBODE. 

©oder rcdactie va.a q O Van Maxlcerv 




ZATERDAG 17 MAART. 



13 Maart 1869 — 13 Maart 1894. 



Dinsdag 11. tegen ongeveer elf ure in den voor- 
middag verspreidde zicb als een loopend vuurtje 
bet bench t door de fabnek; bet is heden juist 25 
jaar geleden, dat de heer Van Mark en werd benoemd 
tot Directeur oozer ondernemiog. Scbooo wet zorg 
geheim gehuuden door den jubelaris, bad toch een 
onzer, wiens meuwsgiengheid gewebt was door bet 
bezorgen van een paar ruiken op „Kust Roest", 
onbJekt wal er gaaode was en zoodia hy bet ootdebt 
had mededeeling daarvan ged&an aan auderen. In 
alleryl werd byeeogekomen en bealoten, alien, die 
e*en gemiil konden wordeo in de fabneb, ait te 
noodigen om elf ure in de leeszaal van „DeGemeen- 
sthap", saam Le bomeo Op dat uur bood die 
leeszaal dan ook een heerlyk geucbt aan. Tal tan 
ledeo van het personeel fan all er lei rang en leeflgd 
stonden daar in laoge. breede ryen in bnnne werb- 
pabken, wachtende tot dat de jubelaris zcu ver- 
lebgneo. By bet tinnenkonien van den beer Van 
Ma&ken ging een dnewerf berbaald boerab op, met 
nngewone krscbt geait. De heer Kkuttel aprab 
namena bet personeel den heer v m M-nti..-. toe, 
bracbt in beriuneriog wal in het vyfenlwintig-jang 
tjjdvak, dat nu achter ons ligt, door den jubelaris 
werd tot stand gebracht met all een voor de 
leidiog en de voortdurende uitbreiding der onder- 
neming, maar ook voor sociale belangen van den 
arbeid. Aan den danb voor dat allea, paarde hu den 
wenscb, dat nog vele jaren de beer Vajh Ma&ken 
aan het boofd der ooderoeuiing zal slaan. 

De jubelaris antwoordde op deze toeapraak. Hy 
daokte voor dit bbjk van hartelykbeid en vnendschap. 
waarop by niet had gerekend. daar hy alles had 
gedaan nat mogelyk was om deze herinoering te 
b# per It en tot eentge weinige persooen. HygafeeDe 
borte scbeta van den toeatand van onze onder- 
neming voor lijfeutwintig jaren en nu, vonral in 
verband met de loonen Hi] was dankba&r. dot 
zoovelc idealen, welke hy boesterde voor vyfentwintig 
jaar by de aanvaardingzyoer taak, thana werbelijkheid 
wareo ge worden. Dankbaar was hy zoowel t«genover 
de a»ndeelhoudera als tegeno^er de arbeiders in alle 
rlngen. van wie beideD by at«eds de meeste raedewer- 
king voor zyne plannen mot bt ondervinden Zool&ng 
li il Iron, hoopte by in deze ncbting voort te gaan, maar 
als hi; er met meer zyn ion, dan hoopte hy dat de 
'gnede geest, welke nu heerscht in ooze onderneming, 
ook onder ziiae npvolgers bewaard mocbt blgten. 

Recht warm werden deze woorden door de aan- 
wezigen loegejuicht. 

De heer Van Makkln verklaarde nu er prys op te 
atellen heden met ieder der aanwezigen een handJr-uk 
•te wisaelen, De Oude Garde, de maonen van sta- 
/raat uit dec eenteo.tyd dn tabnek, gingen hierbg 
TOOr. 



Dps aronds was de nacbtploeg op hel Schafllokaal 
vert'cm^'l De heer Van Mabken k warn op verzoeb 
nob daar en ontving er de getubivenschec van ben. 
die lot hun ;-,'mji door oobekendhetd met bet feest 
des murgena met aanwezig waieo geweest. 

A. F. U. 

In en om de fabriek. 

Inttrebsel van de Notulen der Kamer can den 
Arbeid, tiistfabneb 

Vergadenng op 12 Maart, des avooda ten 6'/i aor. 

Het lid Eushop stell voor aan Je direcde te ver- 
zoeben dat aan bet pereoneel in het vertolg vier. 
in plaata van dne verlofdagen, zullen worden gegeveo. 
De bedoebng *un bet verlof ban dan beter worden 
bereibt. De Spourwegmaatechappyen geveo retoor- 
baarten die vier dagen geldig zyo en dua tou men 
beter gelegenbeid knjgen daarvan te profiteeren om 
familie, die ver af woont, te bezoekeo. 

Een breedvoenge dittcussie onLspint nch over het 
voorstel 

Er nurdt in het ticbl gesteld dat reeds vele gunsUge, 
zeer getvaardeerdi* beachikkingen in bet belang van 
het pemoneel zyn gemaakt, zooals bet verleenen van 
dne verloidagen, met beboud van loon, de uitbetaliog 
van loon op teestdageo, eoz , zoodat waarlyb men 
met met zulk een vooratel tot de djrectie mag komen. 

Bet voorstel in stemming gebracbt wordt met 
9 tegeo 4 aleramen verworpen. 

Het hd ELSHOf stelt voor aan de directie te ver- 
zoeken dat zal worden bepaald, dat apaarders, die 
gelden hebben ataan in de premie-spaarbas, de jaar- 
l^kscbe renten zulleo kunnen ontvangen. Het spares 
zal daardoor worden aungemoedig ' 



i dev 



Hel 



orstel wordt i 



i die geldeq 
o goed benuttigd worden. 



e it.-m 



gen. 



Het bd : 



doet namena eemge leden van bet 
>ratel aan de directie een toelage 
erzoeben voor hei personeel behoorende tot de 
moleo en straatwerk verncbtende. De straatwerbera 
bebben veel sbjUge aan de acboeneo, moeten daarvoor 
per maund ongeveer f 3,50 ujtgeven. Spreker meent 
dat in andere afdeelingeD van de fabnek, waar bet 
loon met dat in den molen overeenbomt, klomp- 
laarzen enz. worden verstrelrt. 

Het voorstel wordt tonder boofdelgke etemming 
aaogenooen. 



Dat men -met de verbeteriog op de Villa aahge- 
bracht, zeer is iogenomen, ban blijken ait een 
schnjven, dat de sub-corn uussie der Villa dezer dagen 
van de Biljart-vereeniging „Gezelligheid" ontving, 

eo dat wy bierachter laten volgeu. 



"The Fartoiy Messenger". 



staff or other readers outside our sphere. 



60 SOCIAL UNDERSTANDING AND AGREEMENT. 

The evening in the family (winter) or in the country (summer). 
Descriptions of round games, puzzles, enigmas, country games, etc. 

Births, deaths and marriages in the family of the staff. 

The staff takes a lively interest in this little paper, which during the 18 
years of its existence has undoubtedly exercised a great influence on the develop- 
ment of the social life of the factories. The ever increasing extension of the 
factories and the ever-growing number of the members of the staff make a 
weekly publication like this one, the only means whereby the directorates of 
great industrial establishments can communicate with every member of the 
staff and bring their ideas into the house and the mind. Every member of 
the staff' receives the "Factory Messenger" gratuitously; the paper numbers 
besides outside the factories and the town of Delft, a considerable number of 
assiduous and sympathetic readers. The complete collection of the 18 years 
which have appeared is an inexhaustible source for the history of the factories 
day by day and of the development of social life in the little world of their 
workmen. 

b. REPRESENTATION OF THE STAFF. 

101. The "Kernel". 

In 1875 the Directorate was already of opinion that it would be desirable 
to constitute a body, which, should the occasion arise, it could consult on all 
questions concerning the interests of the staff in relation to those of the 
Company. 

At first, the "Kernel" was composed of the clerks, then numbering 5, and 
of a fixed number of three workmen elected by ballot by their comrades. 
When the increasing number of the clerks gave them too great a prepon- 
derance it was decided that there should always be a number of workmen 
elected equal to the number of clerks who, by their higher position had the 
right of sitting in the "Kernel". It thus happened that in 1888 it numbered 
24 clerks and 24 workmen; this large number often militated against the 
facility of debate. A re-organisation having become necessary, the question 
arose whether the presence of the higher staff always insured complete liberty 
for the expression of opinion. Reckoning on this fact the following division 
—which is still in operation — was introduced at the re-organisation by which 
the "States General" are composed of 3 Chambers. 

a. The Chamber of higher employees. Members: all the 
superior employees (heads of the various sections). 
It meets quarterly. 



SOCIAL UNDERSTANDING AND AGREEMENT. 61 

b. T 1) c Chamber of clerks and overseers. Members: The two 
seniors in service and six elected by their comrades of equal rank. 

It meets every two months. 

c. The Chamber of labour. Members: The four senior workmen 
and twelve chosen by their comrades. 

It meets monthly. 

Each Chamber elects its president and secretary. 

The reports of the meetings are counter-signed by the Directorate. 

Each member has the rigid to submit proposals to the Directorate and 
to solicit the support of the other Chambers. 

The half-yearly meeting- of the "Kernel" under the presidency of one of 
the Directors, decides in all cases relating exclusively to the interests of the 
staff. For the rest, the "Kernel" has a purely advisory character. 

The most important question upon which the "Kernel" has been called 
to give its advice, is the codification of the working contract in the "Statutes 
of Labour". The project, worked out in detail by the Directorate, was dis- 
cussed in each Chamber separately; the presidents of the 3 Chambers and 
the general secretary of the "Kernel" prepared a full report of these dis- 
cussions, which was submitted for consideration. The Directorate after having 
examined this report, convoked a general meeting' of the "Kernel" at which 
the project was discussed until an agreement has been arrived at upon all 
points. Then, after consultation with the Commissioners of the Company, the 
Directorate definitely agreed upon the project and ordained that it should 
enter into force on 1 st January 1890. 

The best understanding has never ceased to dominate the meetings of the 
Chambers of the "Kernel" and their relations with the Directorate. 

102. The "United Committee". 

At the beginning the different institutions were directed by the interven- 
tion of the section for the "Interests of the Staff" and of its various offices. 
In 1892 Mr. Yan Marken adopted a more general organisation, having for 
its aim the introduction, or rather the strengthening, of the system of self- 
government of the whole of the institutions and of making their existence 
independent of the more or less sympathetic individuals towards this social 
work who would be at any particular time the Directors — always temporary— 
of the Company. This organisation consists in placing each institution or branch 
of an institution (system of apprenticeship, gymnastics and fencing, scientific 
lectures, refectory, etc.) under the patronage of a sub-committee- composed 



62 SOCIAL UNDERSTANDING AND AGREEMENT. 

of three members for preference — of which the majority is elected by the 
"Kernel" and the minority appointed by the Directorate. 
Tliese sub-committees form together 4 committees: 

Committee for material interests. 
Finance committee. 

Committee for intellectual interests. 
Committee for recreatio n. 

A central bureau composed of the head of the section for tbe ''Interests 
of the Staff" president; of the secretary of the "Social Interests", secretary; 
and of the head of the central administration, treasurer, form the executive 
bureau of the "United Committee" and constitutes the bond between it and 
the Directorate. 

This organisation although it does not always work in all its details 
with the desired regularity, has none the less contributed largely to develop 
the self-government of the institutions and to make them answer better 
to their aims. 

Several members of the sub-committees in discussing the interests confided 
to their charge, display laudable zeal and even show an initiative which is 
most cheering. 

Each sub-committee receives a credit for the amount of the budget which 
it has presented, and which the "United Committee" has modified or not, 
and issues cheques payable at the Company's bank. The total budget of the 
"United Committee" amounted in 1899 to 14,000 fl. This sum is divided 
by common consent between the different industrial establishments by the 
united Directors. 

The complete administration of the "United Committee" is centralised in 
one set of accounts. 

The "Finance Committee" administers the funds of all the savings banks. 
for mutual aid, for widows, etc. (which together form a capital of 198,000 ft. 
= £ 16,500). 

Tt looks after the proper investment of these funds under the control of 
the Directorate. 



SOCIAL UNDERSTANDING AND AGREEMENT. 



63 



B. SOCIAL MANIFESTATIONS. 



a. EMBLF.MS. 



103. Banners, Ensigns, Flags. 



Agneta Park, created by Mr. and Mrs. Van Marken, and opened to the 
public (1883) soon appeared to be the favourite place in which not only the 

families of the staff, but also the inhabitants of 
Delft, came to promenade and for recreation. As 
an expression of their gratitude, a committee of 
persons belonging for the most part to the lower 
middle and working classes, was formed to offer 
an embroidered banner to the Yeast and Spirit 
Factory. 

This banner, accepted with gratitude, is the 
emblem of all the interests united in the Company; 
it is carried on all solemn occasions, by the banner- 
bearer, assisted by his deputies, nominated by the 
Directorate on the proposition of the Kernel. 

The staff of the establishments appeared to 
appreciate this emblem of union so much that the 
other establishments comprised in this Delft industry, 
were also, as opportunity offered, presented with 
a banner. In the same way, a number of clubs, 
formed from among the staff (band, various athletic 
clubs, etc.), possess a banner or a flag. 

Each factory has a motto, embroidered on its 
banner : 

the Yeast and Spirit Factory : Do F a b r i e k 
voor de Fabriek. (The Factory for All, 
All for the Factory); 
the Calve-Delft Oil Works : Met E 1 k a a r , Voor E 1 k a a r. (One with 

another, for one another); 
the Glue Factory: Vol hard bezonnen, In 't eind vorwonnen. 

(Persevere wisely, and success comes at last); 
the Van Marken Press: Door den arbeid, aan den Arbeid. (Through 
labour, to Labour). 

At the festival of the 25 th anniversary of the House (20 April 1895), 
celebrated, among other things, by a grand procession, the Directorate distri- 

6 




Banner of the Oil Factory. 

Banner bearer and his assistants 

in gala dress. 

voor Allen, Allen 



64 



SOCIAL UNDERSTANDING AND AGREEMENT. 



buted to each workshop in tlio factory 
an ensign, under which the staff of 
this section was drawn up, and is still 
ranged in the processions organised on 
some festal occasion. 

Thus all these emblems appear, 
on Community-day, at the head of the 
joyous procession of all the corporations 
and of all the societies forming part 
of these branches of the industry of 
Delft. At the burial of a comrade the 
great banner of the factory is carried 
at the head of the funeral party. When 
not in use, the great banners are 
kept in glass cases, placed in the 
different refectories; the ensigns are 
used to decorate the great hall of the 
Community. 




"The hope of the future.' 



b. HOMAGE. 



104. "The Old Guard". 



The nine oldest members of the staff who, since its foundation, have been 
in the service of the Company, are generally known by the name of the 
•'< )ld Guard". 

On solemn occasions, they have a place of honour; in the procession of 
the 20 th April 1895 (Vide no. 103) they followed immediately the carriage 
of the Directorate, in three carriages each drawn by two horses; the members 
of the "Kernel", forming the guard of honour, followed on foot. From time 
to time, preferably on 20 th April, Mr. and Mrs. Van Marken assemble at 
their hearth these nine faithful servants who have grown old with them, 
of whom several are already retired. Although the Directorate does not care 
to remain satisfied in rewarding an old servant after twenty-five or fifty years 
with a gold watch, or even with a similar chain — the Company does it quite 
differently: by insuring retiring pensions etc. — each member of the "Old 
Guard" possesses a beautiful gold watch inscribed with his monogram, a 
precious object which strongly excites the envy of the other members of 
the staff and which as an exception w T as given to these honest fellows on the 
daj of the 25 th anniversary of the factory. 



SOCIAL UNDERSTANDING AND AGREEMENT. 



65 



105. Honorary members of the staff. 



The nomination of honorary members lias foists aim the maintenance of 
a bond with those who have been member! 
the staif and who have distinguished then 
selves in quite a special manner. The honor- 
ary members are nominated by the Din 
orate either on its own initiative, < 
on the proposition of the "Kernel". 
They have the right to continue to 
participate — in the same manner as 
the permanent statf — in the insti- 
tutions of the Company. 

Up to now the distinction 
of honorary member has been 
granted to 12 persons in all 
ranks of the staff: at the side 
of the workman are to be found 
among these honorary members 
two able professors and two heads 
of industrial establishments. 

106. Service Cross. Book of Gold. 

The 25 th anniversary of the 
factory presented an opportunity 
for the creation of a new distinction : 
"The Cross of Honour", which is held 
pi the highest possible esteem by all those 
who receive it. The Cross of Honour with 
a chain for attaching it to the watch and 
accompanied by a diploma, is granted, 

in gold, to those who have "served 
faithfully" for 25 years; 

in silver, to those who have "served 
faithfully" for 12^2 years. 

The first distribution took place at the extra- 
ordinary general meeting of shareholders held on 
the occasion of that anniversary. It was then that the 9 members of the 
"Old Guard" and 1)7 other younger members of the staff received the 
"Cross" from the hand of Mrs. Van Marken. 




Pages from the "Book of Gold of 
Faithful Service". 



66 SOCIAL UNDERSTANDING AND AGREEMENT. 

The name of the poison whose jubilee of service entitles him to the 
Cross is published in the first number of the "Factory Messenger" appearing 
after the anniversary. 

The presentation of the "Cross of Honour" and diploma takes place 
at the public meeting on Community-day. The names of those entitled to the 
"Cross of Honour" are inscribed in the "Book of Cold", a magnificent and 
richly illuminated album. 

In case of dismissal for bad conduct, the Directorate can withdraw from 
the dismissed person the right of wearing the Cross: in this case he returns 
it with the diploma to the Directorate. In all other cases, this right is only 
lost by death ; the Cross must then be returned but the diploma remains as 
a pious souvenir in the hands of the survivors. The number of persons 
entitled after the last distribution (:30 th July 1900) was: to the "Cross of 
Gold" 19, to the "Cross of Silver", 159. 




Service Cioss. 



107. Public funerals. 

Among the social manifestations in the daily life of the House there is 
one which is quite characteristic, and which consists in rendering the last 
offices to a comrade, a solemnity in which the Directorate takes part as well 
as the staff. 

Some time before the appointed hour named, all those who wish to share 
in this last homage, his personal friends, his comrades in the workshop, the 
chiefs of his section of every grade — as far as their presence is not necessary 
at the factory— betake themselves to the little court of the "Villa" where the 
banner Avrapped in crape awaits them. When all are met, the procession 
advances towards the mortuary house, where as a rule the Directorate has 
already preceded it, and where the band plays funeral music if the deceased 
lived in the Park. After the coffin has been placed in the funeral car and 
the relatives have taken their places in the carriages, the convoy moves off 



SOCIAL UNDERSTANDING AND AGREEMENT. 



67 



and crosses the whole length of the town on its way to the cemetery which 
is situated to the south of the town. 

The procession is preceded by the banner of the Factory; the Cross, 
if the defunct had one, is attached to one side of the pall, a wreath from 
the Directorate to the other; the cords of the pall are borne by four 
of the best friends of the deceased ; immediately behind the last carriage come 
the Directorate and the deputations of the staff, carrying the banners of the 
societies of which the deceased was a member. 

Arrived at the cemetery the procession stops at the entrance; eight 
comrades, to the strains of a funeral march, bear the coffin to the grave; one 
of the Directors speaks, to recall the services which the deceased has rendered 
to the House, to bid him a last adieu in the name of all, and the coffin is 
lowered slowly into the grave while the band plays a chorale. 

The first number of the "Factory Messenger" which appears after the 
death, contains a more or less detailed biography of the deceased. 




Winter in Agneta Park. 



FESTAL PROCESSION OF * * 



A DUTCH INDUSTRY AT DELFT 
AND HOF VAN DELFT ON THE 



EVE OF THE 20™ CENTURY * 



PROGRAMME OF THE PROCESSION 

on the occasion of the 25 th Anniversary 

OF THE 

NETHERLANDS YEAST AND SPIRIT FACTORY, 

(20 April 1895). 



The procession, in its entirety, should give the spectator a complete idea 
of the Netherlands Yeast and Spirit Factory in its full extent and in all its 
members, in its every manifestation, of its origin and development, of its resources 
and of its results in every direction. 

The idea which guided the organisers in the composition of the procession 
is the following: 

The fanfare of the national guard of Rotterdam is followed immediately by 

I. THE FLAG 

with its motto "The Factory for All, All for the Factory". The flag, under which 
each and all in the factory are ranged, borne by the standard-bearer on horseback, 
assisted by his aides, and followed by a mounted guard of honour, representing : 

1 st . Capital, with the motto: "The capital of to-day, the labour of 
yesterday". Capital which puts the means of production at the 
disposal of the undertaking, and which gathers a share of its fruits. 

2 nd . Labour, with the motto : "Labour ennobles". Labour, which, during 
25 years, has worked and struggled under the flag for the grandeur 
and glory of the undertaking, and which also receives its share of 
the profits. 

3 rd . Retirement, with the motto: "Rest is sweet when work is done". 
Rest, accorded to old age by the retiring pensions insured by the 
Company. 

4 th . Duties, with the motto: "Talent and zeal". The duties toward the 
Company of those who serve under its banner. 



72 FESTAL PROCESSION. 

5 th . Rights, with the motto : "The master owes to the workman more 
than his wage". The rights of the staff recognised by the Company 
under the most diverse forms. 

6 th . Industry, with the motto: "Source of the national well-being". In- 
dustry which honours in the Company an important and devoted 
servant. 

7 th . Agriculture, with the motto : "I receive and I return in the common 
interest". Agriculture which procures for the factory the product 
of its lands, and which, in return, receives the offal for its cattle. 

8 th . Science, with the motto: "The head which thinks guides the arms 
which act". Science which is as much honoured and professed by 
the Company in its laboratories and engineering workshops, as in 
the institutions for teaching and education created for its workpeople 
and employees. 

i) th . Art, with the motto: "Work sustains, art elevates life". Art, 
honoured and exercised in the social intercourse of the employees 
and workmen of the Company. 

10 th . Co-operation, with the motto: "Union is strength". Co-operation, 
honoured by the Company, but applied on its broadest scale and 
represented by the "Collective Property Company". (Agneta Park). 

11 th . Profit-sharing, with the motto: "Through labour, to labour". Profit- 
sharing, adopted by the Company, but carried to its ultimate 
consequences in the organisation of the Company: "Van Marken 
Press". 

12 th . The Netherlands Oil Factory, with its motto: "One with another, 
for one another", and 

13 th . The Glue and Gelatine Factory, with its motto: "Struggle, perse- 
vere, and victory is sure!" 

The friendly sister houses, (under the co-direction of Mr. Van 
Marken and the latter of Mr. Waller), ranging themselves with 
their banners under the flag of the Veast Factory, render homage 
to their elder sister, whose example lias been precious to them in 
every way. 




3 
O 
C 
O 

X 

o 

■d 

3 



G 



C 

c 



H J5 

i C 

GO 1 



J3 



FESTAL PROCESSION. 73 

Immediately behind the flag and its guard of honour follows: 
I [. THE D I R B C T R A T B, 

which accepted the invitation of the staff to take part in the procession. 

The procession, after being formed, makes its way to the house "Rest 
Rusts", the domicile of Mr. Van Marken, in Agneta Park, where after the 
presentation of new flags to the various sections by Mr. Director Waller, the 
festival committee begs the directors to take their places in the carriage reserved 
for them. 

The Directorate is accompanied by a guard of honour, "the Young Guard", 
members of the gymnastic society "Sparta". 

HI. THE OLD GUARD. 

Messrs: J. M. Boin, J. van der Meer, J. Ladestein, W. P. Garnaat, 
G. Smit, P. J. J. Stelte, W. van Velzen, J. van Vondelen and J. de Vos, 
in three carriages, accompanied by the members of the "Kernel". 

The nine members of the staff who were in the service of the 
Company at its foundation (20 April 1870), are called "the Old 
Guard". This name has become a title of honour in the Factory, 
which signifies at the same time the most complete devotion and 
attachment to the Company. It is for this reason that the Old 
Guard is accompanied, as a guard of honour, by the members of 
the Kernel, whose 3 sections form the "States General" of the 
entire staff'. 

1Y. THE UNDERTAKING 
is divided into 

1. The Factory. 

a. the plan (scale 1 j iM ) of the factory, such as it was in 1870, 
placed, amidst greenery and flowers, on a car drawn by a pony. 

b. the plan (on the same scale) of the factory and Agneta Park in 
1895, mounted on a car drawn by four horses. 

c. the departmental sections, represented on a car drawn by two 
horses, after plans made and executed by the staff of these sections. 

d. these cars are accompanied by the staff of the different departments: 
hoistmen, carpenters, masons, painters, smiths, setters, boilermen 
etc., in their working dress, carrying their tools and flags. 



74 festal procession. 

2. The Manufacture. 

a. car drawn by four horses, bearing, artistically grouped, the tools 
and prime materials used in the manufacture of yeast and spirit. 

b. this car is preceded and followed by workmen employed in this 
manufacture (maltsters, millers, distillers, stokers, packers etc.), 
clad in their working dress and carrying their emblems and flags. 

3. Commerce. 

a. car drawn by two horses, bearing the products of the factory, 
adorned with the Netherlands flag and oriflamme, and with those 
of the provinces and foreign countries with which the Company 
has a connection. 

b. a waggon used for carrying malt, adorned with garlands and flags. 

c. the postal staff of the factory, mounted on velocipedes, the 
telephone staff and the office boys. 

d. these cars are accompanied: 

a. by the Dutch and foreign agents. 

b. by the administrative staff, with their flag and emblems. 

V. FAME, 

who proclaims, in every way, the glory of the Company and of its products 
of every kind, in all countries and in every language. 
She is represented: 

a. by two heralds bearing a fanfare. 

b. by the Press, on a car drawn by two horses, bearing a press at 
work and a column of advertisements. 

Around this car posters, notices etc. are hung. 

VI. THE RESULTS OF THE COMPANY. 

1. Financial results from 1870 to 1894. 

On a car, drawn by four horses, are placed blocks of silver, 
the financial results of Capital and Labour, due to the share 



FESTAL PROCESSION. 75 

capital (cM. 1 cube represents 1 florin = 1 shilling 8 pence, a 

metre cube = 1.000.000 florins). 
The capital was in 

1869 150.000 florins 

1871 200.000 „ 

1881 -400.000 „ 

1890 800.000 „ 

1894 1.050.000 

The base, constantly increasing-, represents this progression of 

the share capital. 

On this base are placed: 

a. blocks representing' the profits of Capital: 
Redemption of buildings and machinery and 

reserve funds 1.181.000 florins 

Debenture interest 238.000 „ 

Shareholders' ( interest © 5 % 481.000 „ 

dividend ( profits (above 5 %) .... 592.000 

Total . . 2.492.000 florins. 
b. blocks representing the profits of Labour: 

Wages 3.078.000 florins 

Premiums 363.000 „ 

Retiring pensions 145.000 „ 

Share of profits 104.000 „ 

Total . . 3.690.000 florins. 
2. The Patronal Institutions. 

a. the Band. 

b. a car, drawn by two horses. 

fn front: in an artistic group, the various institutions: models 
of the "Community" house, of the workmen's dwellings, and of 
protective appliances ; books (the library) ; flowers and plants 
(gardening); the magic lantern; gymnastic apparatus, arms etc. 

Behind: Retiring pensions: the front of a workman's house, 
in front of which are two aged households, enjoying the rest 
earned by labour. 



76 FESTAL PROCESSION. 

c. this car is accompanied by delegations from the clubs, skittle, 
archery, billiard, tourist etc. with their flags. 

d. Instruction: 

a. "The hope of the future" : children of the maternal school, 
on a car drawn by two horses, adorned with works executed 
by these children, by the factory apprentices, by pupils of 
the school for manual work, of the sewing and knitting 
classes. 

b. this car is accompanied by young men and girls, pupils of 
these schools. 



In the preceding groups all the members of the Netherlands Yeast and 
Spirit Factory have defiled before the spectator: a grandiose presentation of 
the benefits resulting from the happy marriage of Capital and Labour. . 

But 

The jealous elements destroy 

That which the hand of man doth build. 

Let us be without fear. 

Men of the Yeast Factory, continue your energetic toil, during yet 
another twenty five years. 

Labour and Capital, celebrate the festivities of your co-operation, the 
source of your well-being. 

What though the elements may threaten .us . . . 

Let us not fear their omnipotence. 
Modest, the last, watching over all, the procession is closed by: 

VII. PRECAUTION. 
The fire-brigade of the factory, with their pumps and apparatus. 



SUPPLEM ENTS* * * * 
STATISTICAL DIAGRAMS * 



WORKMEN'S DWELLINGS IN 
AGNETA PARK * * * * * 



J Lc L rie/Li an a id I J e a3 1 a ia cN e) jo lx lL gJcl&o iij 



oRese 



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of nuinlci o\ ctn|oloijco 

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I ofojuanlilij of iica^l bioc'uccc' 

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J-JJEal UaJoovuv in llic ^C^l ^IZaxKCIl .£' ICSJC- _L L c . .' ho uW k con.-Uc'cxcc* a co. lUvcVdafccx, li-tlli Ike xiofit of co. c>ij>ciu= 



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in Lnol.'wl.ton cu \nc |.->ic>filj ate Icyj ccila.ui cmo [he xtjli. 1 atcalti , in ofobe.Hlioii lo luc ju.iUti uiiliinllcc 1 
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attain, lui iiKoiu of .'aruiq llic |?iofib allolltc 1 Ic KotfOtw . acjeun't icbauiiicnl to llic .Miaicitol^cio of llic cimounlo jut. curcc 1 . 



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Type A. 



WORKMEN'S DWELLINGS IN AGNETA PARK. 



PRICE. 



Ground (with gardens) 400 M 2 a 3 rl. 40 = 1360 florins. 

Building of 4 dwellings 5000 ,, 



Total 6360 florins. 



Price of each dwelling 1590 fl. = £ 132.10 
Rent per week 2 florins = 3 shillings 4 pence. 





Fajade. 



Side-face. 




Longitudinal section. 




Lateral section. 




Ground flour. 



a Entry. 

b Living room. 

c Kitchen. 

d Closet. 

e Recess. 




Upper floor. 



012 3 4 5 Metres. 

I I ! I I I 



(1 yard = 0.914 Metres.) 



f Cupboard, 

g Bedroom, 

li Granary. 

i Staircase, Cellar. 



Type B. 
WORKMEN'S DWELLINGS IN AGNETA PARK. 

PRICE. 

Ground (with gardens) 400 M 2 a 3 fl. 40 = i3 6 ° florins. 

Building of 4 dwellings 6000 ,, 

Total 7360 rlorins. 

Price of each dwelling 1840 9. = £ 153. 6. 8 
Rent per week 1 fl. 90 = 3 shillings 2 pence. 





Facade. 



Side-face. 





Upper floor. 



Ground floor. 



012 



345 Metres. 



a Entry, 

b Living room, 

c Kitchen, 

d Recess, 

e Cupboard. 



(1 yard = 0.914 Metres ) 



f Closet. 

g Staircase, Cellar, 

h Bedroom, 

i Granary. 



Type C. 



WORKMEN'S DWELLINGS IN AGNETA PARK. 



PRICE. 



Ground 400 M 2 a 3 fl. 40 = 1360 florins. 

Building of 8 dwellings 12000 



Total 13360 florins. 



Price of each dwelling 1670 f[. = £ 139. 3. 4 
Rent per week 2 fl. 30 = 3 shillings 10 pence. 





Facade. 



Side elevation. 





Section A-B. 



Section C-D. 




Ground floor 



a Entry. 

b Living room. 

c Kitchen. 

d Recess. 

e Bedroom. 



(1 yard = 0.914 Metres.) 



f Cellar. 

g Cupboard. 

h Granary. 

i Boxroom. 



Upper floor. 



Type D. 



WORKMEN'S DWELLINGS IN AGNETA PARK. 



PRICE. 

Ground (with gardens) 300 M 2 a 3 fl. 40 = I02 ° florins. 

Building of 3 dwellings 57&o „ 



Total 6800 florins. 



Price of each dwelling 2270 fl. = £ 189. 3. 4 
Rent per week 2 fl. 80 = 4 shillings 8 pence. 






Fagade. 



Side-face 



Section A-B. 




Back elevation. 





Ground flc 



a Entry. 

b Living room. 

c Drawing room. 

d Bedroom. 

e Kitchen. 




Upper floor. 



012345 Metres. 



(1 yard = 0.914 Metres.) 



f Boxroom. 

g Recess. 

h Closet. 

i Cupboard. 

k Staircase, Cellar. 




d 



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Van Marken Press Limited. Delft, (Holland).